Citizenship of India

CITIZEN OF INDIA
According to? Indian citizenship and nationality law: The? Constitution of India? provides for a single citizenship for the entire country. The provisions relating to citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution are contained in Articles 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution of India. Relevant? Indian? legislation is the Citizenship Act 1955, which has been amended by the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 1986, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 1992, the? Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2003, and the? Citizenship (Amendment) Ordinance 2005. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2003 received the assent of the President of India on 7 January 2004 and came into force on 3 December 2004. The Citizenship (Amendment) Ordinance 2005 was promulgated by the President of India and came into force on 28 June 2005.
Following these reforms, Indian nationality law largely follows the? jus sanguinis? (citizenship by right of blood) as opposed to the? jus soli(citizenship by right of birth within the territory).
Citizenship by birth
Any person born in India, on or after 26 January 1950 but prior to the commencement of the 1986 Act on 1 July 1987 is a citizen of India by birth. A person born in India on or after 1 July 1987 is a citizen of India if either parent was a citizen of India at the time of the birth. Those born in India on or after 3 December 2004 e considered citizens of India only if both of their parents are citizens of India or if one parent is a citizen of India and the other is not an illegal migrant at the time of their birth the citizen can be an Indian or a foreigners
Citizenship by descent
Persons born outside India on or after 26 January 1950 but before 10 December 1992 are citizens of India by descent if their father was a citizen of India at the time of their birth.
Person born outside India on or after 10 December 1992 are considered as citizens of India if either of their parents is a citizen of India at the time of their birth.
From 3 December 2004 onwards, persons born outside of India shall not be considered citizens of India unless their birth is registered at an Indian consulate within one year of the date of birth. In certain circumstances it is possible to register after 1 year with the permission of the Central Government. The application for registration of the birth of a minor child must be made to an Indian consulate and must be accompanied by an undertaking in writing from the parents of such minor child that he or she does not hold the passport of another country.

Citizenship by registration
The Central Government may, on an application, register as a citizen of India under section 5 of the Citizenship Act 1955 any person (not being an illegal migrant) if he belongs to any of the following categories:——-
* a person of Indian origin who is ordinarily resident in India for five years before making an application for registration;
* a person of Indian origin who is ordinarily resident in any country or place outside undivided India;
* a person who is married to a citizen of India and is ordinarily resident in India for seven years before making an application for registration;
* minor children of persons who are citizens of India;
* a person of full age and capacity whose parents are registered as citizens of India by ordinary residence in India for seven years;
* a person of full age and capacity who, or either of his parents, was earlier citizen of independent India, and has been residing in India for one year immediately before making an application for registration;
* a person of full age and capacity who has been registered as an overseas citizen of India for five years, and who has been residing in India for one year before making an application for registration.
Citizenship by naturalization
Citizenship of India by naturalization can be acquired by a foreigner who has resided in India for twelve years. The applicant must have lived a total of 11 years in India in a period of 14 years, and must have spent in India the past 12 months preceding the application.
Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution of India
Persons domiciled in the territory of India as on 26 November 1949 automatically became Indian citizens by virtue of operation of the relevant provisions of the Indian Constitution coming into force (the majority of the constitutional provisions came into force on 26 January 1950). The Constitution of India also made provisions regarding citizenship for migrants from territories of Pakistan, which were earlier parts of India before the partition.
Renunciation of Indian citizenship
Renunciation is covered in Section 8 of the Citizenship Act 1955. If an adult makes a declaration of renunciation of Indian citizenship, he loses Indian citizenship. In addition any minor child of that person also loses Indian citizenship from the date of renunciation. When the child reaches the age of eighteen, he has the right to resume Indian citizenship. The provisions for making a declaration of renunciation under Indian citizenship law require that the person making the declaration be “of full age and capacity.”
Automatic termination of Indian citizenship

Warning stamped onto Indian Passports Issued by the High Commission of India,? Ottawa,? Canada
Termination is covered in Section 9 of the Citizenship Act, 1955. The provisions for termination are separate and distinct from the provisions for making a declaration of renunciation.
Section 9(1) of the act provides that any citizen of India who by naturalisation or registration acquires the citizenship of another country shall cease to be a citizen of India. It also provides that any citizen of India who voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another country shall cease to be a citizen of India. Notably, the termination provision differs from the renunciation provision because it applies to “any citizen of India” and is not restricted to adults. Indian children therefore also automatically lose their claim to Indian citizenship if at any time after birth they acquire a citizenship of another country by, for example, naturalisation or registration ??” even if the acquisition of another citizenship was done as a result of actions by the childs parents.
The acquisition of another countrys passport is also deemed under the Citizenship Rules, 1956 to be voluntary acquisition of another country??™s nationality. Rule 3 of Schedule III of the Citizenship Rules, 1956 states that “the fact that a citizen of India has obtained on any date a passport from the Government of any other country shall be conclusive proof of his having voluntarily acquired the citizenship of that country before that date”. Again, this rule applies even if the foreign passport was obtained for the child by his or her parents, and even if possession of such a passport is required by the laws of a foreign country which considers the child to be one of its citizens (e.g., a U.S.-born child of Indian parents who is automatically deemed to be a U.S. citizen according to U.S. law, and who is therefore required by U.S. law to have a U.S. passport in order to travel abroad). It does not matter that a person continues to hold an Indian passport. Persons who acquire another citizenship lose Indian citizenship from the date on which they acquire that citizenship or another countrys passport. The prevailing practice at a number of British diplomatic posts, for example, is toimpound and return to the Indian authorities the Indian passports of those applicants who apply for and are granted British passports.
Special rules exist for Indian citizens with a connection to Goa, Daman and Diu. Rule 3A of Schedule III of the Citizenship Rules, 1956 states that “Where a person, who has become an Indian Citizen by virtue of the Goa, Daman and Diu (Citizenship) Order, 1962, or the Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Citizenship) Order 1962, issued under section 7 of the Citizenship Act, 1955 (57 of 1955) holds a passport issued by the Government of any other country, the fact that he has not surrendered the said passport on or before the 19 January 1963 shall be conclusive proof of his having voluntarily acquired the citizenship of that country before that date.
On 16 February 1962, a Constitution Bench of the? Supreme Court of India? held in the case of Izhar Ahmad Khan Vs. Union of India that “If it is shown that the person has acquired foreign citizenship either by naturalisation or registration, there can be no doubt that he ceases to be a citizen of India in consequence of such naturalisation or registration.”
Overseas citizenship of India
There is a form of Indian nationality, the holders of which are known as Overseas Citizens of India.[1]? The Constitution of India forbids? dual citizenship or dual nationality, except for minors where the second nationality was involuntarily acquired. Indian authorities have interpreted the law to mean a person cannot have a second countrys passport simultaneously with an Indian one ??” even in the case of a child who is claimed by another country as a citizen of that country, and who may be required by the laws of the other country to use one of its passports for foreign travel (e.g., a child born in the United States to Indian parents) ??” and the Indian courts have given the executive branch wide discretion over this matter. Therefore, Overseas Citizenship of India is not a full citizenship of India and thus, does not amount to dual citizenship or dual nationality.
The Central Indian Government, on application, may register any person as an Overseas Citizen of India if that Person is of Indian Origin and is from a country which allows dual citizenship in some form or the other. Broadly speaking, a “Person of Indian Origin” is a citizen of another country who:
* was a citizen of India on 26 January 1950 or at any time thereafter; or
* was eligible to become a citizen of India on 26 January 1950; or
* belonged to a territory that became part of India after the 15 August 1947; or
* is the child or grandchild of a person described above; and
* has never been a citizen of Pakistan or Bangladesh.
Note that children of Indian parents do not automatically fulfil these requirements, and are therefore not automatically eligible for OCI.
Indian Missions are authorized to grant applications for Overseas citizenship of India within 30 days to cases where there is no involvement in serious offences like drug trafficking, moral turpitude, terrorist activities or anything leading to imprisonment of more than a year.
The introduction of Overseas Indian Citizenship does not entitle people who have acquired, or are planning to acquire, foreign nationality or to retain their Indian passports. The law continues to require that Indian citizens who take foreign nationality must immediately surrender their Indian passports. Those who are eligible can then apply for registration as Overseas Indian Citizens.
There is no plan to issue Indian passports to Overseas Citizens of India, although the registration certificate will be in the form of a passport-like booklet (similar to the? Person of Indian Origin Card? mentioned below). The Cabinet has also directed the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs to work on a proposal to give biometric smart cards to registered Overseas Citizens of India.
An Overseas Citizen of India will enjoy all rights and privileges available to Non-Resident Indians on a parity basis excluding the right to invest in agriculture and plantation properties or hold public office.[2]? The person has to carry his existing foreign passport which should include the new visa called ???U??™ visa which is a multi-purpose, multiple-entry, life-long visa. It will entitle the Overseas Citizen of India to visit the country at any time for any length of time and for any purpose.
An Overseas Citizen of India will not enjoy the following rights even if resident in India: (i) the right to vote, (ii) the right to hold the offices of President, Vice-President, Judge of Supreme Court and High Court, Member of? Lok sabha,? Rajya Sabha, Legislative Assembly or Council, (iii) appointment to Public Services (Government Service). Also Overseas Citizens of India are not eligible for an? inner line? permit, they have to apply for a? Protected area permit? if they want to visit certain areas in India.
An interesting question is whether a person registered as an Overseas Citizen of India will lose the right of diplomatic protection by their home country while in India. Article 4 of the? Hague Convention on Certain Questions relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws? of 1930 provides that “a State may not afford? diplomatic protection? to one of its nationals against a state whose nationality such person also possesses”. The case depends on two things: first, does the Indian government itself recognize Overseas Citizenship of India as a true citizenship and on that basis refuse the right of diplomatic protection by the other country; and second, does the persons home country recognize it and accept Indias refusal. Both points are doubtful. India does not give Overseas Citizens an independent travel document but instead puts a visa in the other countrys passport. If a person is eligible to have only another countrys passport but not any form of Indian travel document, it is hard to avoid the conclusion that the person is a sole citizen of the other country for the purposes of diplomatic protection.
Acquiring Overseas citizenship of India prevents British nationals from registering as full British citizens under Section 4B of the British Nationality Act of 1981 (which requires that nationals have no other citizenship in order to register.) It does not prevent them from acquiring full British citizenship by a different method and it does not revoke their British citizenship if they have already registered under Section 4B.[2][3]
The Government of Indias Public Information Bureau issued a press release which explains the? Scheme for Overseas citizenship of Indiaon 29 June 2005.
Full details of the OCI scheme can be found on the Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs Web Page.? [4]
A number of other articles have been written including:
* Fools Gold? published December 2004 in Little India
* Dual Citizenship or Dupli City? by Narayanan Komerath, published 28 January 2005
* Read the Small Print on Indian Overseas Citizenship Offer, Warns British Immigration NGO? by Joint Council for Welfare of Immigrants, released 10 August 2005
* Overseas citizenship of India/Dual Nationality – US Embassy, New Delhi
* Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI); Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India
The OCI card is not a substitute for an Indian visa and therefore, the passport which displays the lifetime visa must be carried by OCI holders while traveling to India.[3]
Though not a full fledged a? Dual citizenship,[4]? the privileges afforded by acquiring an OCI card is that now Multinational companies are finding it simpler to hire the OCI cardholders, who enjoy a multiple entry, multipurpose life long visa to visit India. The card provides a lifelong visa to the holder, sparing them the need to obtain separate work permits. OCI holders are treated on par with NRIs for economic, financial and educational matters and only don??™t have political rights and rights to buy agricultural and plantation properties or hold public office.[5]? They are also exempt from registration with the Foreigners Regional Registration Officer (FRRO) on their arrival in the country and can stay or live for as long as they wish. OCI cardholders can travel at very short notice and take up assignments in India, while others could get caught up in bureaucratic delays over their employment visa. Many companies are following an active policy of moving PIOs to India for business expansion. Indian missions overseas are witnessing a deluge in OCI applications, the number of OCI cards issued by consulates around the world have been steadily rising with several Indian consulates grappling with a huge backlog of applications.[6]

Persons of Indian origin (PIO) card

Front Cover of a PIO Card
Any person currently holding a non-Indian passport, who can prove their Indian origin up to three generations before. The same holds for spouses of Indian citizen or persons of Indian origin. Citizens of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and other countries as may be specified by the central government are not eligible for grant ofPersons of Indian Origin Card.[7]
A PIO Card is generally valid for a period of fifteen years from the date of issue. It gives the holder the following benefits:
* exemption from registration at a Foreigners Regional Registration Office (FRRO) for periods of stay less than 180 days,
* enjoy parity with non-resident Indians in economic, financial and educational fields,
* acquire, hold, transfer, or dispose of immovable properties in India, except for agricultural properties,
* open rupee bank accounts, lend in rupees to Indian residents, and make investments in India etc.,
* being eligible for various housing schemes under the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) or the central or state governments,
* their children can obtain admission in educational institutions in India in the general category quota for non-resident Indians.
Possession of a PIO card will not entitle the holder to:
* being eligible for the exercise of any political rights
* visit restricted or protected areas without permission
* undertake mountaineering, research, and missionary work without permission.
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[edit]British nationality and India
British & Commonwealth
citizenship |
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British? (history)
Australian
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Classes of citizens and subjects |
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Indefinite leave to remain
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New Zealand permanent residency
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Acts |
Ireland Act 1949
British Nationality Act 1981
Falkland Islands (1983)
Overseas Territories Act 2002
Canadian Citizenship Act 1946 |
Prior to 1 January 1949, Indians were British subjects under United Kingdom law. See? British nationality law. Between 1 January 1949 and 25 January 1950, Indians remained? British subjects without citizenship? unless they had already acquired citizenship of the UK & Colonies or another Commonwealth country.
On commencement of the Indian Constitution on 26 January 1950, under British Nationality law a person who became an Indian citizen also had the status of? Commonwealth citizen? (also known as aBritish subject with Commonwealth citizenship, a status which does not entitle the person to use a British passport) by virtue of their Indian citizenship and Indias membership of the Commonwealth. However, a number of Indians did not acquire Indian citizenship on commencement of the Indian Constitution and retained? British subject without citizenship? status (which entitles a person to a British passport) unless they had acquired citizenship of another Commonwealth country. Any person who is solely a British subject (otherwise than by connection with the Republic of Ireland) will automatically lose British subject status on acquiring any other nationality or citizenship including Indian citizenship or Indian Overseas citizenship.
British subjects may register as British citizens under section 4B of the British Nationality Act 1981 without requiring any UK residence if they have no other citizenship or nationality and have not after 4 July 2002 renounced, voluntarily relinquished or lost through action or inaction any citizenship or nationality. This facility has been available since 30 April 2003. Those who have immigrated to the UK may have additional options for acquiring British citizenship, which are usually preferred because they give transmissible British citizenship with otherwise than by descent status.
From 1949 the meaning of the term? British subject? was substantially different from what had previously been the case and meant little more than a term to describe someone holding the citizenship of a Commonwealth country. Only a? British subject without citizenship? was entitled to a British passport. See? British subject.

Green and Sustainable Changes

Green Sustainable Changes Paper

Green Sustainable Changes Paper

Hospitals have traditional been a facility that requires the largest amount of energy to maintain and operate. Because of its importance, the suggestion to turn off a few lights will not reduce the carbon footprint that a hospital creates. Patton ??“Fuller Community Hospital is a facility that can use green changes.
The area of the Patton ??“ Fuller Community Hospital that may be in need of a green or sustainable makeover is the how the hospital manages information technology. The information technology interlaced in the hospital is robust. The number of elements, which includes servers, computers, and monitors that make up the network, can be found in every department of the hospital. The operation and sustainment of the IT network requires an extensive amount of energy to keep the equipment powered. The contribution to the carbon footprint that the network provides calls for a reduction effort. Reduction of the energy consumption provides an opportunity for the hospital to assess the number of elements in their IT network and determine if all of the elements are necessary for the departments to function. The hospital should seek to consolidate computers and provide PCs to essential departments only rather than to each employee. Any reclaimed computer equipment that is reclaimed can be recycled through a trade-in program with the company that the computers had been purchased from. The current system can be powered by alternative power sources, which can include solar arrays, include smart monitoring systems to manage power use, and energy conservation policies that encourage power-saving behavior.
The proposal to reduce electricity consumption will focus primarily on performing an energy analysis of the hospital. The initial analysis will involve the study of the current load that hospital pulls from the utility. After the determination of peak usage, the hospital will need to perform an energy efficiency audit. Auditors will need to identify areas of the hospital that can be more energy efficient. The hospital will need to ensure that empty rooms automatically have the lights shut off when not in use. The insulation of the building around the entrances that are frequently opened will need evaluation. Temperatures that the hospital is kept at must be appropriate. Prior to incorporating alternative energy, the hospital will need to ensure that it is operating efficiently and the energy policies are in place to control energy consumption. After the energy efficiency audit is complete, the hospital can add solar panels to compensate for some of the energy use.
Another area of the hospital that can adopt green and sustainable practices is during the emergency room remodeling project. In this project, there are task that allow room for green and sustainable options. One task in the remodeling project is the painting of the walls in the waiting room. The hospital may opt to use environmentally friendly paint that contains low-to-zero VOCs. In addition, the waiting room project calls for decorative features such as wainscoting. Wainscoting is excess material that provides little function in a hospital environment. Here, if the hospital insists on adding wainscoting to the waiting room, then the hospital should opt to use sustainable wood such as bamboo. The ideal scenario would be the elimination of applying wainscoting, thus avoiding unnecessarily using wood resources. The waiting room also has a fish tank that has a proposal for relocation. Fish tanks require continuous power and by removing the tank from the room, the hospital can reduce energy consumption.
Also considered part of the remodeling plan is a water fountain. Although the fish tank and water fountain provides therapeutic benefits, both of these features depend on a larger power draw. Instead of using these features, the hospital may opt to use the existing computer network and install a monitor that shows nature scenes generated by a screensaver application.
By performing the energy audit, the dollars associated with the energy consumption should be enough to convince management and stakeholders that the proposed changes are options that the management should accept and implement. Load calculations can be in the presentation to management. In the presentation, the total load draw of the IT network, combined with the draw of the waiting room feature will also have the costs associated with each element??™s use.
To implement the changes toward green and sustainability, management would need a sustainability manager to project manage the initiative. This person would ensure sustainability policies are created and supported by management. The sustainability manager would need to meet with all stakeholders to determine how to allocate resources and prioritize changes. Because the hospital is limited with time and resources, the hospital should focus on reducing its energy consumption rate. Reducing energy usage and installing solar arrays is a major undertaking and may take longer than the changes in the IT network infrastructure or the remodeling of the emergency room waiting room. Therefore, management should initiate the energy efficiency audit to create a baseline on the hospitals energy usage. If the little improvement can be made, then the management should allow the solar installation process to begin. In parallel, the changes to the IT network and the project changes to the waiting room remodeling can occur.
Conclusion
As a facility that consumes a high level of energy, the focus that management should have is energy consumption reduction. Changes in how the hospital operates can start with creating energy policies and working on changing the culture of the hospital environment. Initiating energy audits to identify areas of opportunities such as the IT infrastructure and how the facility projects are implemented can lead to an energy efficient, green, and sustainable hospital.

References

About.com. (n.d.). Introduction to Pop. Retrieved from http://inventors.about.com/od/sstartinventions/a/soft_drink.htm
The Coca Cola Company. (2010). Environmental Initiatives. Retrieved from http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/citizenship/community_initiatives.html

Citrus

Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all T would like to thank my cousin brother Mr. Neeraj Naithani Research Scholar Department of Chemistry, TTT Roorkee for his contribution in this study. T would also like to thank my Chemistry Teacher Ms. Rampal in providing a helping hand in making my project titled ???Determination Of Caffeine In Tea Samples???.
Disclaimers: The errors idiocies and inconsistencies remain my own.
Ankit Bahuguna
(Name and signature of the student)
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahuguna (XTT-A)
It is hereby certify that, the original and genuine research work is carried out to investigate abut the subject matter and the related data collection and has been completed solely and satisfactorily by this student regarding the Project titled ???Determination Of Caffeine In Tea
Samples???.
Signature
(Subject Teacher)
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahuguna (XTT-A)
CONTENTS
1. 1. Introduction
2. 2. Theory
3. 3. Uses of Caffeine
4. 4. Effects of Caffeine
5. 5. Procedure
6. 6. Observations
7. 7. Result
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahuguna (XTT-A)
INTRODUCTION
Tea is the most commonly and widely used soft beverage in the household. It acts as a stimulant for central nervous system and skeletal muscles. That is why tea removes fatigue, tiredness and headache. It also increases the capacity of thinking. It is also used for lowering body temperature. The principal constituent of tea, which is responsible for all these properties, is the alkaloid-caffeine. The amount of caffeine in tea leavers varies from sample to sample.
Originally it was thought that caffeine is responsible for the taste and flavour of tea. But pure caffeine has been found to be a tasteless while substance. Therefore, the taste and flavour of tea is due to some other substance present in it. There is a little doubt that the popularity of the xanthenes beverages depends on their stimulant action, although most people are unaware
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahuguna (XTT-A)
of any stimulation. The degree to which an individual is stimulated by given amount of caffeine varies from individual to individual.
For example, some people boast their ability to drink several cups of coffee in evening and yet sleep like a long, on the other hand there are people who are so sensitive to caffeine that even a single cup of coffee will cause a response boarding on the toxic.
The xanthene beverages also create a medical problem. They are dietary of a stimulant of the CNS. Often the physicians face the question whether to deny caffeine-containing beverages to patients or not. In fact children are more susceptible than adults to excitation by xanthenes.
For this reason, tea and coffee should be excluded from their diet. Even cocoa is of
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahuguna (XTT-A)
doubtful value. It has a high tannin content may be as high as 50 mg per cup.
After all our main stress is on the presence of caffeine in xanthene beverages and so in this project we will study and observe the quantity of caffeine varying in different samples of tea leaves.
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahuguna (XTT-A)
Theory
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The most important methylated alkaloid that occurs naturally is caffeine. Its molecular formula is CsH10N4O2. Its IUPAC name is 1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthene and common name is 1-methylated thiobromine.
Purely it is white, crystalline solid in the form of needles. Its melting point is 1230c. It is the main active principle component of tea leaves. It is present in tea leaves up to 3% and can be extracted by first boiling the tea leaves with water which dissolves many glycoside compounds in addition to caffeine. The clear solution is then treated with lead acetate to precipitate the glycoside compounds in the form of lead complex. The clear filtrate is then extracted with extracts caffeine because it is more soluble in it then water.
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahnsiina (XTT-A)
Uses of Caffeine :
l.In medicine, it is used to stimulate, central nervous system and to increase flow of urine.
2.?  Because of its stimulating effects, caffeine has been used to relieve fatigue. But it is dangerous and one may collapse if not consumes it under certain limit.
3.?  Caffeine is also used in analgesic tablets, as it is believed to be a pain reliever. It is also beneficial in migraines.
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahnsnna (XTT-A)
Effects of Caffeine
l.It is psycho ??“ stimulant.
2.?  It improves physical and mental ability.
3.?  Its effect in learning is doubtful but intellectual performance may improve where it has been used to reduce fatigue or boredom.
4.When administered internally, it stimulates heart and nervous system and also acts as diuretic. On the contrary their excessive use is harmful to digestion and their long use leads to mental retardation.
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahnsnna (XTT-A)
Procedure
=^> First of all, 50 grams of tea leaves were taken as sample and 150 ml of water was added to it in a beaker.
=^> Then the beaker was heated up to extreme boiling.
=^> The solution was filtered and lead acetate was added to the filtrater, leading to the formation of a curdy brown coloured precipitate.
=^> We kept on adding lead acetate till no more precipitate has been formed.
=^>? ? ?  Again solution was filtered.
=^> Now the filtrate so obtained was heated until it had become 50 ml.
=^> Then the solution left was allowed to cool.
=^>? ? ?  After that, 20 ml. of chloroform was
added to it. =^>? ? ?  Soon after, two layers appeared in the
separating funnel.
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahueuna (XTT-A)
=^>? ? ?  We separated the lower layer.
=^> The solution then exposed to atmosphere in order to allow chloroform to get evaporated.
=^> The residue left behind was caffeine.
=^> Then we weighed it and recorded the observations.
Similar procedure was performed with different samples of tealeaves and quantity of caffeine was observed in them
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahueuna (XTT-A)
I.Red Label Tea (Brooke Bond)
Weight of china dish | 46.60gms |
Weight of china dish with precipitate | 47.20gms. |
Amount of caffeine | 0.60gms |
2.Yellow Label Tea (Lipton) |
Weight of china dish | 46.60gms |
Weight of china dish with precipitate | 47.15gms. |
Amount of caffeine | 0.55gms |
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahueuna (XTT-A)
3.Green Label Tea (Lipton)
Weight of china dish | 46.60gms. |
Weight of china dish with precipitate | 47.05gms. |
Amount of caffeine | 0.45gms. |
1. 1. Quantity of caffeine in Red label tea is 60mg. /sample of 50 gm.
2. 2. Quantity of caffeine in yellow label tea?  is?  55mg./sample?  of 50 gm.
3. Quantity of caffeine in green label tea is 45mg./sample of 50 gm.
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahnsiina (XTT-A)
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Graphically plotting various tea samples in accordance with the amount of caffeine present in them we present a stunning find:
60 mg | 55 mg | 45 mg |
RED LABEL | YELLOW LABEL | GREEN LABEL |
Order of quantities of caffeine in different samples of tealeaves
Heel Label > Yellow Label > ten Label
Determination of Caffeine in Tea Samples Ankit Bahiisiina OCTT-A)

Green and Sustainable

If one saw our planet from outside the solar system it would be as plain as the daylight itself, to see what makes us stand out from our surrounding planetary neighbors. It is amazing that something of such grand importance to all life can be disregarded by so many in such a short period of time. With this resource accounting for over 70% of the earth??™s surface, most of which is saltwater, we as humans have treated this precious resource as our worldwide dumping ground. Our oceans, rivers and lakes have become holding cells for all the refuse, chemicals, garbage and pollutants that we don??™t want to be in our own meticulously manicured backyards. Our water resources are all interconnected to one another through run-offs, streams, rivers, lakes, seas, oceans and glacial icecaps. How we treat or manage one area ultimately has effects on the entire system, even if at a microscopic level. So, over the last 100-200 years we have been extremely irresponsible as a global community when it comes to treating our water resources with the respect that it deserves. We have to work together as a group, independent from social or religious views to conquer this huge task of conserving our water resource and trying to do everything we can to clean up the water we currently have, weather it be saltwater or the much more limited freshwater supply.
This topic is going to be covered from a different, more local perspective by viewing the challenges it creates for a landlocked island in the Pacific Ocean as well as viewing some of the solutions available for the island. Maui, Hawaii is the second largest of Hawaiian Islands with a land mass of just over 700sq. miles. Most of the population on the island sits along the 120 miles of coastline that the island has to offer. The residents of Maui have become conscience once again of how important it is to care for the local resources the island offers and what steps they have to take to create a sustainable island life. By looking at what can be done in this relatively controlled, miniature environment, we can begin to see what can be done on a larger scale in different areas of the world to conserve and replenish our natural resources. Through education, planning and research the residents can look at a plan on a manageable level to monitor sustainable progress when it comes to caring for the islands freshwater supply. They can also look at some of the effects we can not control, like the various forms of ocean debris that wash up on their shores daily as well as what covers the surrounding ocean floor. So we are reviewing two problems at the same time that are very interconnected, the overuse of freshwater as well as the contamination of freshwater and saltwater resources. As much as one would like to divide the topics into separate categories, they work together as one.
We need to first look at where the water comes from to understand its path to the final destination, our faucets and then the ocean. In Maui, the clouds are brought to the island by trade winds from the northeast, where they have formed from evaporated surface water elsewhere. The rainforest in the two island mountainous regions catch the clouds along their floating journey across the Pacific Ocean. The cool mountain air condenses the clouds to form rain. This rain flows into Maui??™s streams, creeks and ditches, while some penetrate the ground and are held in natural underground aquifers. These aquifers provide the island with most of it??™s freshwater that is delivered to local homes and businesses. This used tap water combined with the excess rain, eventually washes across or under our sprawling urbanized areas and carry all the surface pollutants with it, emptying into the ocean.
There are various contributions to the problem across the world, but there is one common denominator that is linked to all contributing factors, they are all caused by human interaction. By taking a look at Maui, we can look at how to solve problem be looking at the factors that have caused it on a small, but evenly distributed scale. Maui is part city, part country, part off the grid. It also has a varied population in age, race, gender, ethnic, and economic and social backgrounds to represent a slice of the world population. It has a land mass that is confined and can be easily monitored and researched. The largest contributing factors are overuse, misuse and contamination. Over the course of human history, the interaction we have had with water has been largely successful to our advances in the modern world, but it has come with a cost. In the past we have been fairly respectful of our water resource, but over the last 100-200 years, we have become very careless with the way we interact with this precious resource.

|Some Contributing Factors Of Water Overuse or Water Contamination |
|Agricultural Chemical Run-Off |Basic Unused Overuse Of Water |
|Improper Disposal Of Rubbish In Landfills |Leaking Home Or Business Fixtures |
|Cityscape That Increases Surface Run-Off |Extreme Water Flow In Home Or Business Fixtures |
|Deforestation |Agricultural Overuse Of Water |
|Direct Ocean Dumping |Swimming Pools And Other Recreation Uses Of Water |
|Acidic Rainfall |Many Others??¦ |

This could be like many other informational paragraphs that focus on informing the reader by naming a laundry list of how this problem affects the inhabitants of the world. In this reading, it??™s not going to happen. We are grown adults that all have the ability to see that what we are doing is not healthy for the water supply, and not healthy for all that depend upon it. The affects are so numerous at this point that it can not be put into a document, a book, or a research document of any readable length. Every single living thing on earth has been affected by this problem.
The overuse of freshwater leads to unwarranted depletion of our freshwater resources. This leads to less freshwater for human consumption, less freshwater in our streams, rivers and lakes to promote life that is dependent on freshwater to survive. Less usable freshwater combined with increased population does not match up under any circumstance and begins to cause territorial protection problems where freshwater is more bountiful, against areas that are freshwater deprived. If the freshwater disappears in particular areas that are governed by political and religious borders, how would one borrow such a sacred resource from another when that time comes Under today??™s circumstances it goes to the highest bidder. So, something has to be done to prevent such a basic human right such as water, from becoming a resource for only the wealthy.
When it comes to the affects that contamination causes on our freshwater and saltwater resources, the horrifying examples are endless. From disease to death, species endangerment to species extinction, it affects all living life forms on the planet. We are all interconnected as species and as one group is affected, we all will be affected. In the terms of water use, misuse and contamination, humans over the last two centuries have had zero positive effects. We have been reactive to the research that shows up the damage we are doing to this resource, but under no circumstance have we as humans done positive things for this resource without being reactive to the harm we have caused.
Some of the reactive actions we have taken are a good start to correcting the problem that we have caused. Over the last 25 years this problem has been widely recognized and has been a growing concern for communities across the world. Currently, there are many sustainability strategies and solutions in place, but they are not enforced across the board, which is where education has to be taught on a world level to conquer the problem that affects all of us. Some of the current solutions that are in place are very good and extremely useful, it just takes an understanding from the public that is has to be done by everyone, all the time while seeking out ways to improve upon these solutions. Everyone has to have their eyes on the same prize, plentiful clean freshwater and healthy saltwater for our oceans to harbor quality life for all its inhabitants. Some useful solutions are listed in the chart below and are a great beginning for all of us.

|Water Conservation Techniques You Can Practice Around Your Home |
|Save Water In The Bathroom |
|Check Your Toilet For Leaks |Take Baths In A Partially-Filled Tub |
|Stop Using The Toilet As An Ashtray Or A Wast Basket |Turn Off Water After You Wet Your Toothbrush |
|Take Shorter Showers |Check Faucets And Pipes For Leaks |
|Install Water-Saving Shower Heads Or Flow Restrictors |Rinse Your Razor In The Sink In A Few Inches Of Warm Water |
|Displace Water By Filling A Water Bottle With Sand and |Each Individual In Your Household Should Flush One Less Time Per |
|Placing It In Your Toilet Tank |Day – Doing So Can Result Many Gallons Per Month In Savings |
|Save Water In The Kitchen and Laundry |
|Use Your Automatic Dishwasher Only For Full Loads |Check Faucets And Pipes For Leaks |
|Use Your Automatic Washing Machine Only For Full Loads |If You Wash Dishes By Hand, Dont Leave Water Running |
|Keep A Bottle Of Drinking Water In The Refridgerator – |Dont Let The Faucet Run While You Clean Your Fruits And |
|Running Tap Water To Cool It Off For Drinking Is Wasteful |Vegetables |
|Save Water Outside Your Home |
|Use A Broom, Not A Hose To Clean Driveways and Sidewalks |Dont Run The Hose While You Wash Your Car |
|Water Your Lawn Only When It Needs It |Tell Your Children To Not Play With The Hose And Sprinklers |
|Deep Soak Your Lawn – Water Long Enough For The Moisture To |Water During The Cool Parts Of The Day – Early Morning Is Better |
|Soak Down To The Roots |Than Dusk Since It Helps Prevent The Growth Of Fungus |
|Put A Layer Of Mulch Around Trees And Shrubs |Position Sprinklers So Water Doesnt Land On Paved Areas |
|Attach A Rain Sensor To Your Sprinkler System |Xeriscape Your Lawn With Vegitation That Is Suitable For Your |
| |Area |

Through education, community involvement and future government support we can determine the best course of action moving forward to solve this international crisis. The local sustainability plan for Maui follows. This plan needs to be simplistic, just as simplistic as the solution to regain control of our water resources. This can not be a bill, a law, a mandate we wait for the federal or state government to put into place for us. We have to want this as citizens and we have to be the ones to control our own actions for any plan to be successful. The government can help assist us in moving forward, but there has to be enough community support to show them we care enough to do what is right for our environment. The challenges are many with this fight. The biggest challenge is encourage everyone in the community to change their daily habits to support a water friendly environment. Once enough people are united the other large scale challenges will seem small because of the great support of the community. When many minds are focused on the task, the challenges become easy to overcome if you have the interest of the source in mind and not what short term hardships it creates for you as a person or your company or your entity.

|Action Items |Action Steps |Timeline |
|(in the correct order) | | |
|Research and identify the effects of |Review environmental Web sites and journals. |Month 1-6 |
|water overuse, misuse and | | |
|contamination |Document the sources of water pollution/misuse/overuse and both | |
| |environmental and health effects of water pollution/misuse/overuse. | |
| | | |
| |Document video interviews of environmental researchers and facilitators. | |
|Develop an education program about |Create the presentation to show why this program is important. The |Month 1-6 |
|water overuse, misuse and |program must address the water pollution/misuse/overuse effects, the | |
|contamination. |changes that will be required on a personal and business level in the | |
| |community, and the challenges and eventual benefits the program has to | |
| |offer. | |
|Schedule a presentation day and time.|Confirm a site for conducting a meeting that addresses these issues in an |Month 6 |
| |open forum in a centrally located are of Maui. Maui Community College has| |
| |the proper location and resources available to properly conduct meeting. | |
| | | |
| |Document the audio and visual equipment needed for presentation and layout| |
| |of the room. | |
| | | |
| |Approve all handout materials that will be provided during presentation. | |
|Identify and invite community |Select participates to serve on a vocal board for providing feedback that |Month 5-6 |
|participants that represent a |properly represents various sectors in Maui. | |
|statistical cross-section of Maui | | |
|County. |Create and distribute flyers to homes and business announcing the | |
| |presentation and encourage as many members of the community to attend as | |
| |possible. | |
|Acquire feedback from these |During and immediately after the presentation, acquire feedback from |Month 6-7 |
|participants to capture community |participants and their represented sector to understand current level of | |
|interest and support. |community involvement and to understand current methods of sustainability | |
| |to compare to future findings | |
|Review feedback and incorporate |Review finding and incorporate into sustainability plan to see where the |Month 8 |
|agreed upon ideas into the |strongest level of support needs to be and how to accompany what is | |
|sustainability plan |already being done. | |
|Create breakout groups to manage |Hold elections to develop groups and group leaders to handle each smaller |Month 8-9 |
|smaller, more focused tasks. |task. | |
| | | |
| |Develop communication plan between all parties invoved. | |
| | | |
| |Set up monthly communication dates where collected data is reviewed and | |
| |shared with others in various breakout groups. | |
|Educate the business and residential |The education begins. Hands on, grass roots movement to educate the |Month 9-24 |
|community thru these small focus |residential and business sector. | |
|groups. | | |
| |Person to person involvement to join the group, participate in group | |
| |studies and provide feedback at the 24 month mark. | |
|Review new feedback after education |Review and collect data from all participants |Month 24 |
|session. | | |
|Schedule a follow up meeting to | Conduct follow up meeting to reconvene and compare results from pre-study|Month 24 |
|review data analysis and make |period vs. post-study period. | |
|adjustments moving forward. Invite | | |
|participants from other communities. |Discuss how these actions have helped or hurt our common goal. | |
| | | |
| |Note improvements that can me made in each smaller group. | |
| | | |
| |Invite participants from outside Maui to attend meeting, ask questions and| |
| |develop interconnected relationships with their community or organization | |
| |to encourage future plan growth in interested outside communities. | |

Sustainability plan benefits are as numerous as the challenges that come before it. Clean city streets, properly maintained compost areas and landfills, clean drinking water, abundant freshwater for all people at very little cost, cleaner ocean saltwater to reenergize the population of sea life, less disease from water contamination and a focused effort on what it will take on a larger scale to see this all the way through are some of the biggest benefits. With Maui being landlocked, it has the ability to see the freshwater benefits in a very short period of time. The results are not infused with uninterested surrounding parties that are not willing to participate. Maui will still have to endure ocean damage from irresponsible use thousands of miles away, but will see small results from responsible local use.
The biggest support in fixing this situation is societal support. It has to start with a paradigm shift at a personal level. There has to be changes that are made on personal level that are just a way of living life differently. Once this goal is the focus of many the government support will be easy due to not having to battle the public groups that are in opposition. Government could help in a number of ways. It could implement fines for misuse of water, leaking pipes that go unrepaired, incentives for businesses to support responsible water use as well as residential support in terms of water efficient appliance rebates or tax credits as well as many other supporting tools. Global support will come from education and example of success that is being achieved on a smaller scale. People learn from experience and education and if they see these well-developed systems in place, it will be easier for them to support and adopt themselves.

City & Guilds 7303 Question 2

Question 2 7303
Identify the key aspects of current legistative requirement and codes of practice relevant to your subejct & type of organisation within which you would like to work.
Answer

Intended working environment is Local Authority staff:
Providing Personal Safety training/Conflict Management &.Breakaway Skills. Training:
The main areas I would need to adhere of when providing training to the above would be as follows:
Health & Safety at work act 1974.
Local Authorities have their own Health & Safety officers who are responsible for the employee??™s health & Safety whilst carrying out their duties which would include providing a safe venue for training & checking that any electrical equipment brought onto the premises has had the necessary safety check.
Nevertheless on the day of the training the trainer has a responsibility to check the venue is suitable for the number of delegates attending and is safe for the particular intended activities be carried out on the day.
This would be particularly important where physical activities are to take place e.g. Breakaway skills training.
In this instance the trainer must check that there are no potentially dangerous objects in close proximity to the intended training area which could result in injury, the flooring is suitable e.g. non slip and if safety mats are to be utilised that they are free from defects and correctly fitted etc.
Data protection issues need to be considered but this is unlikely to be a major concern on a one day course but could present a possible issue for instance if the delegate had filled out a pre- health check questionnaire prior to breakaway skills training as this would be personal information which they may not want others to know about.
Other Legislation which will need to be adhered to
Codes of practice: Again local will have all the necessary policies in place to protect their employees from any form of discrimination
These policies will include
Race Relations Amendment Act 2000
Places a statutory duty on all public bodies to promote equal opportunity, eliminate racial discrimination and promote good relations between different racial groups.
Disability Discrimination Amendment Act 2005
promoting equality for disabled people.

Employment Equality (Age) Regulation 2006
Protects discrimination on grounds of age in employment and vocational training. Prohibits direct and indirect discrimination, victimisation, harassment and instructions to discriminate.

Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulation 2003
The directive protects against discrimination on the grounds of religion and belief in employment, vocational training, promotion and working conditions.

Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulation 2003
The directive protects against discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation in employment, vocational training, promotion, and working conditions.
The above protection will be further strengthened by new equality Act to be introduced later this year (October 2010).

Green Clean Mna

ABSTRACT
Green Clean is a MNE selling environmentally friendly cleaning products. Our mission is to help the world by providing sustainable, environmentally friendly cleaning products. We consider this mission to be a noble one that carries vast responsibility. Our values of integrity and excellence define how we conduct our business, how we interact with each other and how we treat our communities and our planet. The mission of Green Clean is to development and distribute environmentally friendly cleaning products while making a meaningful contribution to the environment. Green Clean will always remember ??“ ???We only have One???.
?

Executive Summary
Green Clean is a MNE selling environmentally friendly cleaning products. Our mission is to help the world by providing sustainable, environmentally friendly cleaning products. We consider this mission to be a noble one that carries vast responsibility. Our values of integrity and excellence define how we conduct our business, how we interact with each other and how we treat our communities and our planet. The mission of Green Clean is to development and distribute environmentally friendly cleaning products while making a meaningful contribution to the environment. Green Clean will always remember ??“ ???We only have One???. We will create a profitable company that sells environmentally friendly cleaning products; Distribute only quality, environmentally friendly products; and Build the company on a solid basis of integrity.
The Products
Green Clean is a complete line of non-toxic, environmentally friendly cleaning supplies for every household need. Green Clean sells a wide range of environmentally friendly cleaning products including Green Soap, Green cleaner, Green Glass, Green Laundry, and Green Whites. Green Clean is able to offer high quality, environmentally sound, competitively priced products. All products are designed to be effective at cleaning, yet easy and non-toxic on the environment. Green Clean has contracted with a large national producer of environmentally friendly products to manufacture these products with the Green Clean label. As the company grows we will consider adding new items to the product list as demanded by the market.
??? Green Soap: Liquid concentrate soap created with orange oil and a sodium citrate base, Green Soap is ideal for washing walls, floors, cabinets, and all other washable surfaces including dishes.
??? Green Cleaner: This Multipurpose cleaner is formed from an orange oil and citric acid base. Used in a spray form is ideal for removing dirt and grime quickly and easily, and any odd job to clean and deodorizing the entire house. It is also highly effective at removing soap scum build up.
??? Green Glass: A simple solution of orange essence and citric acid producing streak free results on any glass or glasslike surface.
??? Green Laundry: This biodegradable vegetable-based detergent is concentrated and combined with a color safe stain fighting formula perfect no matter how dirty the clothes are.
??? Green Whites: A calcium carbonate and baking soda base will get even the toughest surfaces and clothing whiter than any regular bleach, with a pleasant scent and less inpact to the environment than a chemical cleanser.
The Market
Green Clean currently has two customer segments. The first segment is individual consumers who are purchasing the products direct for personal (household) use. These customers are environmentally conscious that are looking for non-toxic cleaners for their home. Demographics for this group are people between the ages of 28 ??“ 45, who are interested in making an individual contribution to the betterment of our environment. The median household income of this segment is $40,000 per year. Most will consider how their actions impact the environment, and will also participate in other green activities such as utilization of public transportation and active participation in recycle programs.
Moving Forward
Small company in Mexico that produces air fresheners that is currently in economic trouble. They are currently seeking FDI and are open to the idea of a partnership to save their operations. The air fresheners currently produced are not done in a environmentally sound fashion, and the end product is not made of all natural materials. This investment would include FDI to the company, research and development to produce an environmentally sound product, as well as potential plant/production facility renovations as needed to deliver the end product. The small production facility would be able escape the reality of layoffs, keeping their doors open, as a benefit to their employees and country
The environmentally friendly cleaning supply industry is beginning to develop momentum as individuals and corporations are all looking to do their part in becoming a greener society. The expansion of our product line will provide a well rounded portfolio, allowing us to touch on every aspect of cleaning supplies, from surface to surroundings. There will also be an expansion of customer base and reduction in foreign trade. These changes will be a testament to the strength of a free market view.
Although there is known risk and benefit to this endeavor, it is clearly not one to be taken lightly. The future of not only Green Cleans??™ corporate growth, the company subject to our investment, as well as the prosperity of each of our employees, and ultimately our customers, and our planet ??“ ???We only have One???.

REFERENCES
How to write a business plan; http://www.microsoft.com/business/en-us/resources/startups/business-plans-entities/how-to-write-a-business-plan.aspxfbid=n95NTcwvBCw#Howtowriteabusinessplan
Product Mix; http://www.enotes.com/business-finance-encyclopedia/product-mix
Costs Benefits; http://r0.unctad.org/p166/modules2001/mod2/Milberg.pdf

City of God

City of God or City completely forgotten by God

Nowadays, its really hard to find a good, touching movie. Generally, its caused by the lack of originality. Almost all of the movies, which are currently on the air are patterned one after another.
Thats why I have been looking for old, often underrated or daring movies. Thats how I found out information about “City of God”. After reading a short description of this released in 2002 and created by two young directors Fernando Meirelles and Katia Lund movie, I decided to watch this film immediately. I dont regret that decision.

The whole plot is based on factual story. Entire action takes place in the poorest district of Rio De Janeiro, titular “City of God”. Millions of people live there without gas, electricity and even running water in carton-made houses, the walls of which are covered with fungus and mould. Millions of the homeless and unemployed keep fighting with each other in order to get food and money to survive. Among them we can also notice children – the most harmed by the twist of fate. Great majority of them is naked, dirty and ravening. But thats not the most horrifying issue. The most horrendous thing is that not adults, but children are drug trafficking there. Not adults, but children rule that shanty town with guns, drugs and sex workers. No one can match to them. Police is helpless, because everyone is against police there.

On the starting scene we can see a bunch of boys chasing a chicken. Thats how we meet one of two main characters in this movie – a young boy called “Little Ze”. Actually, calling him a boy is a little bit inappropriate – he is the head of the biggest gang in City of God. A remorseless mugger, who kills, rapes girls and threatens everyone just for fun. The second main character is a little boy well-known as a “Rocket”. We first meet him when the chicken being chased by earlier mentioned boys stops in the front of him. Entire gang is aiming with guns at him and thats when the main plot starts. Rocket rehearses the story about the “City of God”. He describes with details how children seized slums several years ago. He says a lot about himself. In sharp contrast to Little Ze, he doesnt want to stay there even a little longer. He wants to get out of there, he would like to become a photographer. In order to get job, he has to make some photos from City of God – at last one with Little Ze in the foreground.

The most horrible thing is, that that is a true story. No one dreamed it up. Seeing 5 -year- old kid who kills a younger one must be overwhelming. Unfortunately, script isnt exaggerating.
The thought-provoking thing is that no one wants to change that. Government doesnt do anything because is frightened by the scale of the problem. People in that shanty town are lonely, left with their own devices. Making that movie, directors wanted to draw attention to that. Thats one of the reason why there is no music at all – cinema-goer must focus on the screen.

Without help from outside, nothing will change. Its proved in the last scene of the movie, when Little Ze, forsaken by comrades, is killed by even younger boys, who want to take control over his business.

This movie is simultaneously touching, controversial and dreadful. But, maybe only such a scary film could change something For me this film is a must. With unhidden pleasure I shall remember this particular movie as one of the most memorable among the ones I have ever seen. I hope that someday Ill see another movie which will show the changes in this district.

Green Eyed Monster

Running head: THE GREEN EYED MONSTER

The Green Eyed Monster
Courtney Lombard
Capella University
The Green Eyed Monster
So your best friend wears a size zero and complains that it is too big on her! Your next-door neighbor is driving a Mercedes and your car can barely make it to the end of the driveway. Your sister takes off for a week-long vacation in the Caribbean and you cannot get farther than the state park, Jealous Who wouldnt be Sure, there are times when everyone else seems to have more, do more, or look better. However, is that really the case
???Jealousy, it seems, is a fundamental aspect of human social life. For as far back in time or as widely across civilizations as one can peer, the green-eyed monster has reared its head??? (Desteno, valdesolo, & Bartlett,? 2006). Jealousy is the root of many evils that can affect the poorest of paupers to the richest of kings. It has led men to lie, cheat, steal and exhibit other harmful acts toward their fellow man. This one emotion has broken the spirits of men since the dawn of time, and there is no end in sight. Jealousy is defined as a jealous attitude or disposition or close vigilance. However, this brief definition does not tell the whole story. For some, jealousy is much more than an attitude or disposition it is a way of life, and for others, it can consume their lives, changing it forever. Consider the example of a beautiful socialite who finds her husband with his secretary/lover and kills them both in a jealous rage. Reaction to a negative or passionately charged situation is what makes jealousy so dangerous.
If jealousy can be so dangerous, is envy dangerous too Envy and jealousy are often used interchangeably, but when used correctly, they stand for two distinctly different emotions. Envy also can be a dangerous emotion, but there is something important that separates it from jealousy, passion. You can be envious of your neighbors new car or your friends new leather coat, but these feelings will not lead you to passionate violence. Jealousy almost always involves a passionate and emotional response to something, and so it evokes passionate and emotional actions. Sometimes, just as jealousy can bring about positive responses, envy can bring about positive change, too. Some people can use their envy of others to improve themselves. Take the example of the overweight girl envious of her friends fine figure. This envy motivates her to change her lifestyle and lose weight so she and her friend can wear clothes similar to those worn in high school.
???It is our contention that threatened self-esteem is the principal mediating mechanism of jealousy??? (Ellsworth & Scherer,? 2003). Jealousy may reflect a persons view of him or herself. Its more about how people feel about themselves and whether they are confident about whom they are. A person who has a poor self-image may feel threatened and believe that he or she has nothing to offer to keep someone else interested. Most jealousy arises when someone feels insecure and threatened, either of losing the relationship, or that someone else will get the craved attention.
Jealousy strikes both women and men equally, and probably more often than they want to admit. Many people have the wrong idea about jealousy. Common misconceptions of Jealousy are that it is unhealthy. Contrary to what many believe, jealousy is not necessarily a sign of unhealthy possessiveness or a serious character flaw, (Alexander,? 1995). Feelings of jealousy are most often normal. When handled appropriately, it may promote personal growth. It means your relationship is bad. It is more likely to mean that you care and are committed. Think of it as a warning sign. When a relationship you value is threatened, jealousy is a natural response.
For many, jealousy has to do with personal relationships. Jealousy may arise, for example, if an individual believes his or her partner is not paying enough attention to them. Jealousy can also happen if a one partner or spouse consistently makes the other feel uncomfortable through both their words and their actions. In any relationship, trust and mutual respect are essential to keep the relationship flourishing and communication strong. Jealousy might seem flattering at first, if an individual??™s mate wants all of his or her time and attention, but it also can be a sign of emotional instability. That flattering interest in your attentions can turn into a chronic lack of trust and suspicion. A husband who is jealous of his wife??™s innocent friendships with other women, and who tries to control her and separate her from her friends, can become a big problem.

Jealousy is not limited solely to relationships. Jealousy can arise over the good fortune of friends or associates. This also ties in to feelings of self-worth; person who does not have a strong self-image may believe that he or she is not getting the fair share and that others always get the breaks.

All emotions, even jealousy, are the brain??™s way of communicating something about ourselves. When jealous flare-ups occur, use them to explore what underlies the emotion. Jealousy is usually provoked not just by the possible loss of the relationship but also a perception that the supposed “rival” has something that you dont. For instance, maybe jealousy of a partners savvy business associate stems from the dissatisfaction with a job, a partner??™s enthusiasm for his or her work may remind one of their frustrations. Pinpointing what triggers jealousy can help motivate one to take steps to improve one??™s life (Salovey,? 1995). It is important to understand and acknowledge that jealousy has a purpose. If ashamed of feeling jealous, the natural instincts to mask it with protective emotion such as anger, frustration, or resentment take over. Instead of masking our feelings, we should ask ourselves, “Why am I choosing to feel jealous” Not everything is equal or fair, but to be dishonest about your own feelings is wrong. There will always be someone who is more beautiful, more talented, and more successful, but so what.

References
Desteno, D., Valdesolo, P., & Bartlett, M. (2006). Jealousy and the threatened self: getting to the heart of the green-eyed monster. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology,, 91(4), 626-641.
Ellsworth, P. C., & Scherer, K. R. (2003). Appraisal processes in emotion. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Alexander, E. (1995). Debunking Jealousy Myths. Chatelaine, 68(2), 26
Salovey, D. (1995,? Feb). How to Handle Jealousy. Chatelaine, 68(2), 38

City of Sacramento

About the City of Sacramento
The City of Sacramento, Sacramento County, California, was founded in 1849, and is the oldest incorporated city in California. In 1920, Sacramento City voters adopted a City Charter (municipal constitution) and a City Council-City Manager form of government, which are still used today.

The City Council consists of a Mayor elected by all City voters, and Councilmembers elected to represent the eight separate Council districts in the City. Each district is a separate geographical area with a population of about 51,000 residents. Each Councilmember must be a registered voter and live in the district they represent. Elected members serve 4 year terms and elections are staggered every two years in even numbered years. (Council District Information, including summary report of population and racial statistics).

The Council establishes City policies, ordinances, and land uses; approves the Citys annual budget, contracts, and agreements; hears appeals of decisions made by City staff or citizen advisory groups; and appoints four Charter Officers, a City Manager, City Attorney, City Treasurer, and City Clerk. Councilmembers serve on several working committees, such as Law and Legislation, and Personnel and Public Employees. In 2002, City voters amended the City Charter and established a Compensation Commission to set the compensation for the Mayor, Council members and public members of City boards and commissions. This Charter Amendment also established the Mayors position as a full-time job.

The City Council holds public meetings most Tuesday afternoons and evenings (at 2 p.m. and 7 p.m. respectively) in the City Council Chamber on the second floor of City Hall, 915 I Street in downtown Sacramento. The Council also holds special meetings and committee meetings which are open to the public. Agendas for City Council and Council committee meetings are available online and in the City Clerks Office, Room 211 of City Hall.

The City also has a Legislative Affairs Unit; its primary purpose is to advocate, coordinate and advance the Citys legislative agenda to enhance the Citys ability to govern and provide essential municipal and community services.

Green Licennse Plates

Green License Plates to Identify Sex Offenders in Ohio

In the United States 25% of all children are sexually abused prior to their 18th birthday. That means statistically 1 out of every 4 children are sexually abused. Only 16% of child victims ever feel comfortable telling someone they are being abused and only 3% of sex offenders are caught and prosecuted. 1 out of 3 people with be raped through out their lifetime, 1 out of 4 are women. Ohio is a similar microcosm of the same nationwide statistics. Therefore, requiring sexual offenders in Ohio to have green license plates in one important step in identifying sexual offenders and protecting victims from further offenses. Only convicted sex offenders that used violence or preyed on minors would have green license plates. Also right now people have gotten D.U.I??™s have yellow license plates with red numbers and letters.

In Ohio the largest group of sexual offenders were those who victimized children under the age of 13. 93% of all sexual offences involved children victims. Children who have been sexually abused have higher rates of suicide, antisocial behavior, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, anxiety, alcoholism and drug abuse. Research also indicates that severe forms of sexual abuse can have deteriorating effects of normal brain development. When an individual is raped it affects their relationships, their view of the world and their ability to trust or feel safe and often causes psychological disorders. There is evidence that people who had been sexually assaulted repeat the cycle and are more likely to sexually assault someone else.

Sex offenders thrive on presenting themselves as a person who is safe and fun to be around children. Sex offenders are often the person that parents trust the most with their children. Given the fact that the majority of Ohio??™s sexual offenders are offenders who pray on children; it appears clearly evident that the people of Ohio must implement laws that allow children to be protected. Furthermore, it is time for Ohio to start protecting victims, by allowing sexual offenders to be readily and easily identified, it allows people to keep themselves safe, and it also makes it harder for an offender to offend. ???It would give people the tools to make informed decisions for the safety of themselves and their kids,??? said Ohio??™s State Senator.

One study found that 42% of offenders re-offended after they were released. Risk for re-offence was the highest in the first six years after release, but continued to be significant even ten to thirty one years later, with 23% offending during this time. Released rapists were found to be 10.5 times as likely as non rapists to be re arrested for rape and those who served time are found to 7.5 times as likely as those convicted of other crimes to be rearrested for a new sexual assault.

Identifying offenders with a green license plate is one way to make an offenders whereabouts and possible intentions easy to detect. This will then lesson an offenders opportunity to reoffend. Not only will boldly identifying sex offenders help to keep victims out of harm from these dangerous sex offenders, but perhaps more victims will be encouraged to report their abuse when they know that it will not be quietly swept under the rug as we as a society have done in the past.