Cis 115 Treatment Programs

5
Running head: JUVENILE DELINQUENT TREATMENT PROGRAMS

Juvenile Delinquent Treatment Programs

Mountain State University

Abstract

What treatment program works best for rehabilitating youth delinquents The aim of this

paper will be to review various treatments, their impact, and make recommendations for

rehabilitation treatments and areas for future research.

Juvenile Delinquent Treatment Programs

Juvenile crime can alter the life of the victim and the offender forever. Many
People disagree on how to handle crimes committed by youth offenders. Should they be treated
as an adult or a child What should be the consequences of the crime How can we
prevent the youth of American from committing crime These are all great questions
and there are many correct answers. Crime is not easily defined. For every crime there
are a set of circumstances and events that lead up to the crime being carried out. How
many youths commit crime According to the U.S. Department of Justice (2008), ???In 2008, there were 6,318 arrests for every 100,000 youths ages 10 through 17 in the United States??? (para. 3).
Elements for Successful Programs
According to the Office of Independent Ombudsman for the Texas Youth Commission (2008), there are five common elements of successful anti-gang initiatives which include, ???leadership, quality of information, prompt and appropriate management of behaviors, highly structured, and commitment to maximize staff resources??? (Office of Independent Ombudsman for the Texas Youth Commission, 2008). I believe these five elements are beneficial not only for anti-gang initiatives but juvenile delinquent treatment programs.
There are many different treatment programs aiming to prevent juvenile delinquency.
Many states programs attempt early intervention and funding for community initiatives has allowed some independent groups to solve problems in new ways. According to Einstein Law (2008), the most effective programs are education, recreation, community involvement, prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses, parent-child interaction training program, bullying prevention, prevention programs within the juvenile justice system, Nebraska correctional youth facility, ending repeat offences and functional family therapy.
???Most effective youthful offender programs include in-depth evaluation, screening and
assessment; daily scheduling; point system discipline; positive behavioral support therapy; and education, including literacy, GED preparation and computer literacy??? (Hess, 2004, p. 359).
According to the University of Pittsburgh (n.d.), ???Multisystemic Therapy has shown promise as a cost-effective strategy for decreasing the number of incarcerated offenders while reducing their antisocial behavior, and it is the only treatment to demonstrate short-term and long-term efficacy with chronic, serious, and violent juvenile offenders??? (p. 3). Multisystemic Therapy interventions are child focused, family centered, and directed toward solving multiple problems across the numerous contexts in which youths are embedded and interventions are tailored towards specific needs (n.d.).
In theory, many people think that if someone commits a crime one time that is the best
time to try a rehabilitation program in order to reduce further crime in life. However, research shows that 70% of youths who are arrested once, are never arrested again (Hess, p. 399). Therefore, based on the facts, the money available for prevention programs should target repeat offenders not first time offenders.
Ineffective Programs
Juvenile treatment programs that have had the least success and proven to be ineffective are scare tactics, juvenile boot camp, and scared straight programs (Einstein Law, 2008). While these treatment programs goal was to ensure juveniles knew that crime would not be tolerated and organized to install fear there was no correlation with decreasing crime. In fact, according to Hess (2004) youth that had been placed in the adult system actually had a higher recidivism rate than similar juveniles placed in juvenile detention facilities. Juveniles placed in adult jails also had a higher rate of being abused by other inmates and guards (2004).
Another program shown to be ineffective is the DARE program which stands for Drug Abuse Resistance Education. According to Hanson (2007), ???DARE is not only ineffective, but also sometimes counterproductive. That is, students who graduate from DARE are sometimes more likely than others to drink or do drugs??? (para. 3).
Future Research
Our nation needs to put efforts towards the 8% problem. According to the U.S. Department of Justice (2001). “8 percent of the juveniles were arrested repeatedly (a minimum of 4 times within a 3 year period) and were responsible for 55% of repeat cases” (p. 1). If we can find out what program rehabilitates the youths who commit over 55% of all crimes we can change the crime rate of the nation. “Even a modest reduction in recidivism rates for the 8% problem group could result in major, long-term savings” (2001, p. 2).

References
Hanson, D. J. (2007). Effectiveness of DARE. Retrieved from
http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/youthissues/1059145293.html
Einstein Law. (2008). Juvenile delinquency prevention. Retrieved from
http://www.lawyershop.com/practice-areas/criminal-law/juvenile-law/prevention/
Hess, K.M. (2004). Juvenile Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Office of Independent Ombudsman for the Texas Youth Commission. (2008). Gang Prevention
and Intervention Best Practices and Recommendations for the Texas Youth Commission.
Retrieved from http://www.tyc.state.tx.us/ombudsman/rpt_GangPrevention.pdf
Stone, S. (n.d.). Changing nature of juvenile offenders. Retrieved from
http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/conference/track1.html not yet
U.S. Department of Justice. (2008). Juvenile arrest trend rates. Retrieved from
http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/crime/JAR_Display.aspID=qa05200
U.S. Department of Justice (2001). OJJDP fact sheet. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from
http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/fs200139.pdf
University of Pittsburgh. (n.d.). Effectiveness of treatment for violent juvenile delinquents.
Retrieved from http://www.education.pitt.edu/ocd/publications/sr1993-03.pdf[pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic]

Greed and Corruption Is Raymond Carvers Popular Mechanics

Greed and Corruption
A quarrelling couple allows their hatred for one another to overshadow the safety of their young child and ???In this manner, the issue was decided??? (63) in Raymond Carver??™s morbid adaptation of our modern self-seeking society. ???Popular Mechanics??? is not only the title of a well known do-it-yourself magazine, but is also the title of Carver??™s short story. The title ???Popular Mechanics??? foreshadows the abrupt and sudden harm of the couple??™s baby. Carver uses allegoric references to the weather, the rooms in the house and the child to portray the greed and voracity of society.
The story opens with the snow melting into ???dirty water??? (62). The snow is no longer pure and white, it is unclean. In the same sense, the couple is no longer content in their marriage; their love is deteriorating just as the snow is deteriorating. The darkness of the world is creeping into the house and into the marriage. ???As the light dims, the civility of the parents wanes??? (German and Bedell). Later in the story, ???the kitchen window gave no light??? (63), signifying all concern and consideration leaving the parents.
While the husband is packing his belongings the wife yells relentlessly at her husband. She identifies the picture of her child in his bag, takes the picture and leaves the bedroom. The bedroom, once a place of intimacy, is now a place of controversy. As the couple moves into the kitchen, their concern for their child??™s well being is slowly disappearing. The wife, in an effort to guard the child from the father, steps behind the stove. The father reaches across the stove in order to pry the child from her arms. This action is the first real signification of the father??™s negligence. After a brief but boisterous struggle, ???they knocked down a flowerpot that hung behind the stove??? (63). ???The breaking pot symbolizes the breaking up of the marriage??? (German and Bedell).
Carver also uses a biblical reference to King Solomon and the two mothers. Both women give birth to a child only days apart. One of the woman??™s children dies; in turn she takes the other woman??™s child, claiming it to be hers. When the two women appear before Kind Solomon, both argue that the living child is theirs. Solomon, in his wisdom, proposes that the child be cut in half so that both women might have equal parts of the child. The true mother refuses and gives her child to the other mother to keep the child alive. King Solomon sees the true mother??™s concern and allows the real mother to keep the child. ???In Carvers story, the babys welfare is obviously not the “issue,” had the parents been tested by Solomon, they would have been served an equal share of their baby??? (German and Bedell). The innocent suffers because of the selfishness of the parents. Their greed causes them to overlook their child??™s safety, and only concern themselves with who keeps the child. The child is merely a toy that the parents absorbedly fight over.
???Popular Mechanics??? reveals the corrupt and self-regarding nature of society. ???Here??¦Carver paints a dark vision of the present state of human relations??? (German and Bendell). The weather along with the significance of the room, only impacts the reader at a greater level. The parent??™s true selves are seen. They disregard the safety of the child pulling it as if it is a doll, and the issue of who keeps the child is decided.

Bibliography
Carver, Raymond. ???Popular Mechanics.??? Introduction to Literature: Pearson Custom Library. Boston: Pearson, 2007. 62-62.
German, Norman., and Jack Bedell. ???Physical and Social Laws in Ray Carvers Popular Mechanics.??™??? 31 March 2008 .

Cis 205 Business Process and Information Systems

Business Process and Information Systems
CIS 205
July 31, 2011
University of Phoenix

Business Process and Information Systems
Within the following paper the requirement is to discuss the business process within the place of employment familiar to me, along with the strengths and weaknesses of the information systems chosen and how to improve those systems.
Information systems (IS) and the business process go hand-in-hand in the place that I am employed. Each area whether it be the business process end or the information system end needs one another to reach the goal of serving the customer and send required information to the corporate office. To achieve a better understanding of what business processes are and how IS is essential to supporting and managing the business process the topic will be discussed as to how they involve the job duties in my work environment.
Starting with the understanding of what is a business process, this is a collection or areas that are involved in the business environment concerning; related areas, structured, or task (Rainer & Cegielski, 2011). This collection achieves the ability to serve a customer or many customers with a specific service or product.
There are three types of business process within an industry these are as follows:
1. Management- this controls the operations of a system
2. Operational- Purchasing, Manufacturing, Advertisement, and Sales
3. Supporting ??“ Accounting, Recruitment, Technical Support.
Management Process
Within the management process in regards to my company Information Systems is found to be an extreme importance to the company. With the corporate office located hundreds of miles from our location the need for E-mail, recording of daily sales, and relating issues within our facility is accomplished through the use of the Internet. Another advantage of IS consist of the POS being able to send required information via the network this information consist of cash sells, credit sells, amount of fuel sold, along with all entries that went into the POS register to show the users daily activities. Moving up to a current system has been an exciting experience because we was conducting our sells on a cash register that was invented in the middle 80s. Even with these advantages there are a few disadvantages to how our systems work in the area of managerial.
The POS register has many capabilities to the system, but our company has decided to only set the system up to perform 30% of its capabilities. with this there are many issues that sneak up on the employees and managerial staff, which will be covered in the operational process.
Operational Process
The operational process relies on the IS to allow items to be ordered for the store, employee information to be given to the corporate office on hours worked, time missed, and any warnings given is in the dinosaur times (Rainer & Cegielski, 2011). The system performs its task and is done faster than when we was on dial-up Internet connection as early as three months ago. The issue with the way information is relayed to the corporate office is through a system that is from 1995, we still operate on the OS of Windows 95. With this there are many features that are not currently available for use to perform task.
A strong belief is that business would become more efficient if we had the software program of Microsoft Office?® to help keep track of our employees times, ordering, and employee HR issues because they programmed our POS register to only work with 30% capacity. All information must be performed by human input, whereas if our POS cash register worked to its full capacity the system would keep track of employee??™s hours, and be able to track items sold to help save money with the ordering process by decreasing human ordering error.
Supporting Process
The area of supporting process is one I am not familiar with, these occur within the corporate office. We as managers must figure employees hours on a calculator for each day and enter the information onto a spreadsheet on the out-dated computer. I see potential for error during this process, with human miscalculation of employee??™s hours. This could be avoided with the use of an up-to-date program such as Excel, or Quicken. After we figure the hours we must e-mail the finished information to the payroll department in the accounting area.
Another familiar area is technical support; the only technical support that is available to us is that of the POS system, we do have a toll free number that we call to help with any technical issues. Oftentimes we call another store first to check if they have had an issue like the one we are experiencing. I have called technical support at one time to discover technical support could not help me. The reason for the inability to help is because when corporate ordered and had the system installed they failed to set the system program up to where the system could be taken over by technical support through the Internet to examine and fix issues this left them unable to help.
Even though our company has updated in some areas these updates were done to the bare minimum. This not only makes the jobs of the management and employees harder but cost the company money in the end. If the POS system was fully functional they could save money from expired products, wages spent on extra paperwork, along with less human error from ringing products up incorrectly. Besides having the POS programmed to run to full capacity the company also needs to update the OS of the manager??™s computer as well to add needed benefits for those who must run the fueling station.

Reference
Rainer, E., & Cegielski, C. G. (2011). Introduction to information systems: Supporting and transforming business (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Greek and Roman Cultures

Shandrika Sutton
Unit 1 IP
Greek & Roman Cultures

Comparison between Greece and Rome | Rome Differences | Greece Differences |
Greece and Rome are both Mediterranean countries. | Rome is located on a plain that borders on the east with mountains and on the west by the sea. | Greece is located on an irregular coastline in which the mountain terrain of the Greek peninsula isolates various Greek city-states from one another. |
Both cultures began their history as city-states. | Rome was easily exposed to migrations and invasions of people in the north by the Po River and in the south by Sicily. | Greek city-states had to be united by force. |
Rivers and Oceans were used as forms of trade. Agriculture was the stimulant of the economy. | Romans brought communities that were on the Italian peninsula and controlled them. | Greek cities strictly forbidden the creation of a Greek empire. |
Greeks and Romans worked in mines and used slaves. | Many of the Roman gods??™ names were changed to names that were more Roman sounding. | Greek women had no rights, no citizenship, nor free will. |
The women wore long tunics called ???stola??? and had no rights until almost 200 years later. They were also considered property to their husbands. | The Romans held gladiatorial games as well as executions in arenas. | Greeks had a more festive and artistic religion. |
Rome and Greece has Democracy as a form of government. | Romans were master sculptures. | |
Plays were performed in arenas in both Greece and Rome. | Women gained a sense of freedom to participate in daily social life, own land, run businesses, inherit wealth, and work. | |

Cis Brief Kudler Fine Foods

Running head: KUDLER FINE FOODS CIS
Computer Information System Brief
ACC/542
Computer Information System Brief
Kudler Fine Foods
The current system at Kudler does not meet their needs. The registers are the tools used to follow up with customers??™ orders and purchases. The registers record all sales transactions, in addition to items sold and its quantities and prices. This helps Kudler in keeping track of their inventory and determines their need while forecasting for future business. Moreover, the registers have a function in which different reports can be run to help Kudler in running their business. However, this system is outdated and there is a considerable opportunity to update it.
Nevertheless, a change in the system would cause some chaos because Kudler??™s employees are familiar to the existing system and are comfortable performing the sales transactions on it. Therefore, if management decided to update to a newer system, they should take into consideration the employees??™ unfamiliarity of the new system. Thus, the company needs to invest time and money to train the employees on using the new system.
Another opportunity exists in upgrading into a system that works for current and future operations, especially with the planned expansion of the business. Because Kathy is the one in charge, she commutes between the three stores to make sure that business is running smoothly. Kudler Fine Foods lacks an internal network that does not allow Kathy to oversee operations from one location. With the expansion plans, a remote access system is a must for Kathy to access all accounting, inventory, and sales operations from one location.
Concerning the system security and protecting the integrity of information, Kudler does not have any current capabilities of security measures that enables them of protecting their customers??™ and own financial and personal information. The existing system has primitive security measures such as passwords and user ids but there is a need to take more advanced measures to secure the company??™s financial information as well as the customers??™. An upgrade in this area is detrimental because nowadays many threats from hackers, viruses, and identity and financial information theft exist. A new system that requires higher security standards and use data encryption measures can help Kudler Stores in protecting themselves and their customers as well.
With the upgrade in the system, a suggested upgrade to the servers should accompany it. Kudler should install two servers to back up all data and business information gathered daily. These two servers are a mirror of each other. In the event of a system failure or a malfunction of one of the servers, the second server will be used until the IT department repairs the main one. In addition to that, a backup tape drive is another good plan used for end of day backups to protect and keep a record of the inventory and supplies.

Greek Architecture

Proportions in Greek and Renaissance Art
Golden Rectangles
A Golden Rectangle is a rectangle in which the longer side is 1.618 times the shorter side, and the
shorter side is 0.618 times the longer side. Many shapes in nature fill a golden rectangle. A spruce
tree has golden proportions in height and width. The dragonfly s wingspan length to his body length
is a golden proportion.

Spruce tree

Golden Proportions
A proportion is the relation of one part to another. In a golden proportion, one length is 0.618 times
the other length. The exact formula is:
2
1 5
.
It can also be found from the Fibonacci numbers (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377,
610,…). Dividing Fibonacci numbers (number gets closer and closer to the golden proportion):
1 1 = 1
1 2 = 0.5
2 3 = 0.667
3 5 = 0.6
5 8 = 0.625
8 13 = 0.615
13 21 = 0.619
21 34 = 0.618

Golden Proportions In Greek and Renaissance Art
Since the Ancient Greek times, artists have regarded the golden proportion as one of ideal beauty. It
can be found throughout in paintings (like the Mona Lisa
http://avline.abacusline.co.uk/pictures/jpeg/pics/mona.jpg, sculptures, and architecture (like the
Parthenon ). An easy way to quickly measure golden ratios is to use the Fibonacci numbers in
some measuring unit like centimeters or inches.

The following is quoted and paraphrased from
http://www.goldenmuseum.com/0305GreekArt_engl.html
As the main requirements of beauty Aristotle puts forward an order, proportionality and limitation in
the sizes.

Consequences in Greek Architecture building constructed on the basis of the golden section:
??? The antique Parthenon
??? “Canon” by Policlet, and Afrodita by Praksitle
??? The perfect Greek theatre in Epidavre and
the most ancient theatre of Dionis in
The theatre in Epidavre is constructed by Poliklet to the 40th Olympiad. It was counted on 15
thousand persons. Theatron (the place for the spectators) was divided into two tiers: the first one
had 34 rows of places, the second one 21 (Fibonacci numbers)! The angle between theatron and
scene divides a circumference of the basis of an amphitheater in ratio: 137?°,5 : 222?°,5 = 0.618
(the golden proportion). This ratio is realized practically in all ancient theatres.
Theatre of Dionis in Athens has three tiers. The first tier has 13 sectors, the second one 21
sectors (Fibonacci numbers)!. The ratio of angles dividing a circumference of the basis into two
parts is the same, the golden proportion.
From the Fibonacci series: 5, 8, 13 are values of differences between radiuses of circumferences
lying in the basis of the schedule of construction of the majority of the Greek theatres. The
Fibonacci series served as the scale, in which each number corresponds to integer units of
Greeks foot, but at the same time these values are connected among themselves by unified
mathematical regularity.
At construction of temples a man is considered as a “measure of all things: in temple he should enter
with a “proud raised head “. His growth was divided into 6 units (Greek foots), which were
sidetracked on the ruler, and on it the scale was put, the latter was connected hardly with sequence of
the first six Fibonacci numbers: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 (their sum is equal to 32=25). By adding or
subtracting of these standard line segments necessary proportions of building reached. A six-fold
increase of all sizes, laying aside of the ruler, saved a harmonic proportion. Pursuant to this scale
also temples, theatres or stadiums are built.

Golden Spirals
Make a small square. Then make a set of squares in which the length of the next size square is 1.618
times the length of the last square. The easiest way is to use the Fibonacci numbers — make one 1
cm on a side, then 2, 3, 5, 8, up to 55 cm on a side.

Draw a quarter circle in each square. Use a compass to make them exact.

Then arrange the squares to form a golden spiral.

There are many examples of golden spirals in nature — shells, horns of mountain sheep, ferns, pine
cones, pussy willows, elephant tusks, some spider webs, sea horse tails, hurricanes, and galaxies to
name a few.
http://www.goldenmuseum.com/0305GreekArt_engl.html

Examples on the application of the Golden Section in Greek Architecture:

Cis319Wk3

Jammie T. Jackson

How is office automation and group collaboration software used in my work environment

Computer and Information Processing CIS/319
University of Phoenix
Heather Dougherty
November 3, 2007

I am a member of the Louisiana Air National Guard 159th Fighter Wing. I??™ve been in this Squadron for eight and a half years. This squadron is broken off into units. For example, my unit is Security Forces, which is another name for military police. In addition to my unit, we have communication, aircraft maintenance, medical, and so on. Some of our application software consists of Microsoft Office Word and Microsoft Office Excel. Some of the group ware consists of Microsoft office Outlook and Microsoft Office Share Point.
As mentioned before one of the application software used is Word which is used for a number of things. One usage would be writing letters that could be sent and viewed by other units. If a troop??™s behavior or actions does not meet the Air Force standards, then disciplinary actions are taking towards the troop. The documents the troop could receive are a LOC which is a Letter of Counseling or a LOR which is a Letter of Reprimand. Two documents that can affect a troop when it is time for promotion.
The advantages of Microsoft Office Word are that it features many tools for editing text like, bullets and numbering, alignment, and paragraphs. It also includes a selection of different languages and fonts. In addition, it gives the person using the program the option of adding clip art onto there document. In my opinion, this is a wonderful program and there are no disadvantages that I could find or think of.
Another application software used by my squadron is Microsoft Office Excel. This software is mainly used to keep things organized. For example, I??™m assigned with a task of ensuring all troops in my unit complete an annual training. I would type in one of the columns the troop??™s names. Then type in one of the columns completed and in another not completed. Print this out and it helps me keep an accurate count of who has completed and who has not completed the training. Another way Excel is used by our squadron is keeping an accurate location of our aircraft. This is called an aircraft plot. There are two ramps and different spots that are numbered were the aircraft would be located. There is also a wash wrack where the aircraft is washed. All this information plus more is stored on a spread sheet. Every time an aircraft is moved or has a flight MOCC updates the spread sheet. The aircraft is a priority to Security Forces as well. Security has to keep up with the location and making sure the right person or persons should be working on or flying the aircraft. Security can also access the aircraft plot. The advantages of Microsoft Office Excel are it keeps data organized and better managed. This is another program that I think there are no disadvantages.
Some of the group ware that is used by my squadron and unit are Outlook and Share Point. Outlook is a great source of communication through out our squadron. We are always multitasked, so sending an email is better that making a phone call. For example, speaking to someone verbally isn??™t always good. What if you gave another member a call reminding them of a task that due by noon on that date If the task is not complete and someone has to take responsibility for it, since you pass this information to the member verbally it can be there word against ours. Now, if you would have sent that member an email and someone had to take responsibility for that task not being completed; you have concrete evidence that could back you up. We also use Outlook to send members documents like, letters, pictures and power points.
The advantages are when sending a group of people the same email, enabling you to put the individuals address in the field without exposing all the email address to the other recipients. A disadvantage would have to be the BCC. I say this because at my job it is used against you. Just say you were the person that was sent an email telling you that a task has to be completed by noon. This same email can be sent to you and BCC to your supervisor without you knowing. What if you were not able to finish this task Your supervisor may think your are irresponsible.
The other group ware that is used by my squadron would be Share Point. Every few years our squadron has an ORI (Operation Readiness Inspection). This inspection determines whether our Squadron stays open or closed. Share Point is used so the entire squadron have the same understanding of what is going on. On this web page a member can view things like, Force Protection, weather, battle station number, documents, contacts, and so on. The advantage is that a web page can be created directly from existing Microsoft Office Word 2007 documents. As of now, I don??™t know any of the disadvantages. Maybe one could be the information you need is on a document that is not Word 2007 and would have to transfer that information to the Word 2007 document.

Greek Civilizations

Ancient Greek Contributions
The ancient Greeks can be credited with many contributions to Western civilization. The Greeks helped influence us in many areas, from the arts, architecture and philosophy to math, drama and science. In each of these areas, the root of who we are today can be attributed to the contributions of the Ancient Greeks.
Although the Greeks fought many wars and had political turmoil, they always had confidence in the power of the human mind. They had natural curiosity and a belief in reason. Greek thinkers, artists, and writers explored the nature of the universe and the place of people in it. Socrates was not only an impressive figure, he was known as the wisest and justest philosopher of his time.(According to Plato) As stated in Document 1, ???The unexamined life is not worth living??? is a famous quote by Socrates that suggests if you don??™t reflect on how you live your life, there is no point in living it. Today, people still seek truth and self-knowledge. Aristotle was a student of Plato??™s and also a famous philosopher. He analyzed forms of government and questioned how people should live. He promoted reason as the guiding force for learning. As stated in Document 2, Aristotle said, ???A life guided by human reason is superior to any other??¦??? He believed in studying human nature. Our schools today still study all branches of knowledge, including politics and ethics.
During the Hellenistic age, thinkers built on early Greek knowledge. Mathematicians, such as Pythagoras and Euclid helped our advancement in learning. As stated in Document 5, the theorem, ???If two straight lines cut one another, the vertical, or opposite, angles shall be equal.??? This is an excerpt from the Elements, written by Euclid, a textbook that became the basis for modern geometry.
Greek architects wanted to convey a sense of perfect balance to reflect the harmony and order in the universe. The Parthenon as pictured in Document 7, is the most famous example of this. Today, many public buildings use the same kind of Greek columns in their architecture, especially buildings in Washington DC.
Early Greek sculptors carved figures in rigid poses but later developed a style of natural poses. For example, Myron??™s famous marble sculpture of The Discuss Thrower, as seen in Document 8, represents an Olympic event. The Greeks held athletic contests to honor Zeus, the most powerful Olympian. The Olympic Games helped unify the Greek world. Today, thousands of athletes from around the world compete in the summer and winter Olympics. To honor the Greek origins, relay runners carry a torch from Greece to the host city.
Perhaps the most important Greek contribution to literature was in the field of drama. Greek dramas were often based on popular myths and legends. Through these stories, playwrights described moral and social issues or explored the relationship between the people and the gods. One of the greatest playwrights was Sophocles, who wrote tragedies. An excerpt from the play ???Antigone??? is described in Document 6. He explores what happens when an individuals moral duties conflict with the laws of the state. Today, many dramas and plays deal with these same types of struggles.
As you can see, many of the contributions of the ancient Greeks influenced our world today. It is because of their great civilization we are who we are today. From the arts, architecture and philosophy to math, drama and science.

Cisco Systems Parallels Google Inc.

???Every success is built on the ability to do better than good enough??? (???Success???). Successful companies in the United States receive recognition when placed in Fortune Magazine??™s top 500 lists. The list signifies the company??™s revenue, with the number one company brining in the largest amount of income, and so on down the scale. One thing all of these companies have in common is that they have created products or services which are better than good enough. Cisco Systems ranked number 71 within the Fortune 500 and generated approximately 350 million dollars in revenue. Google Inc. ranked number 150 in the Fortune 500 list bringing in roughly 16 million dollars in revenue (???Annual Ranking???). Although the two companies are placed far apart on the Fortune scale, they have significant similarities. Cisco and Google offer products and services in the technological field, have paralleling management styles and cultures, as well as histories which originated from the same general location.
To begin with, the history of Cisco Systems begins at Stanford University, in the year of 1984. The organization was created by Len Bosack and Sandy Lerner, who were computer scientists working at the college (???Corporate Timeline???). They had a vision of a world incorporating technology and a fluid information exchange, and decided that it would be helpful if the existing communication process was improved upon. The network communication of their time was confined to a solitary location, such as a building. Information could not be exchanged between locations separated by distance, such as the buildings within a University. Bosack and Lerner created a system which linked two buildings on their Stanford campus together in an effective fashion. The founders went on to invent a new technology, the first multi-protocol router which was a huge success. It was then that the company was born and named after the city San Francisco because of its location near the Pacific Ocean and neighboring Asia (???Corporate Timeline???). The gap seems to represent the gateway which Bosack and Lerner saw as an opportunity for a larger platform for information exchange.
The history of Google Inc. also originated from Stanford University, in the year 1995. The organization was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Pd.D. students at the college (???Google Milestones???). Page and Brin believed that the way existing search engines determined results was inefficient. The search engines of their time counted how many times a keyword occurred within the webpage, and then sorted and presented results according to which site included the keyword most. Page and Brin inferred that a searcher could ascertain more accurate results if a new method was adopted. The founders believed that if a webpage had more links to it from other highly relevant webpage??™s, then those pages would be more along the lines of what the searcher is looking for. Brin and Page created a search engine called PageRank, which was tested at Stanford University, and comparable to the way the founders of Cisco tested their router at Stanford (???PageRank Citation???). After the search engine became a success, the founders decided to create a new name. The idea of Google was established, as word play on the term googol, which stands for a number followed by 100 zeros (???Google Milestones???). Just as the name Cisco derived from a representation of complex technological potential, Google also symbolizes the same concept. The name Google signifies how intricate of a mission it is to organize the millions of gigabits of information on the World Wide Web.
Secondly, the products and services offered by Cisco are in the field of technology. The organization specializes in providing network equipment which allows secure communication between sites or devices which previously stood alone. According to the Products and Services section of the Cisco??™s website, the company supplies equipment for network systems, network security, wireless, and collaboration for video conference (???Products & Services???). The company offers services for network management and has a school for training.
Google Inc. also provides products and services in the technological field. According to the About section of Google??™s website, the company??™s products are comprised of software, advertisement medium, and enterprise services (???About Google???). The software includes web searchers, a web-based email service, a video search engine, translation services, and desktop applications such as Google Earth. Google also provides enterprise services such as advertisement free searchers and security services (???About Google???).
Last but not least, the culture at Cisco is characterized by the organizations commitment to diversity and its outstanding treatment of employees. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, culture is, ???the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes a company or corporation??? (Culture). Cisco values and fosters employee diversity, employee development, work-life programs, employee networking, and health/safety. This is because the company knows that these things promote more efficient personnel. The senior vice president of Cisco Systems, Brian Schipper shares his opinion about the significance of diversity, “diverse teams foster a creative, innovative work force, enabling collaboration across the company, to deliver products and services for our customers??? (Carless). The amount of care Cisco provides for its employees is phenomenal, and proof prevails since the organization was included in the 100 Best Companies to Work For list compiled by Fortune magazine (???100 Best???).
Similarly, the culture at Google??™s is also diverse, and the company cares for its workers well. At Google, the assortment of employees is not confined, as represented by the chief operations engineer, who is also a license neurosurgeon. Google values diversity, because the organization understands the importance of inclusion. As Nikesh Arora, the president of EMEA operations states, ???Diversity and inclusion are fundamental to Googles way of doing things. We strive to be a local company in every country in which we operate, and we understand that our users have different cultures, languages, and traditions??? (???Diversity???). Google provides networks for employees with varying ways of life, to encourage communication. The networks are distinguished by its members, which include Asian/African/Native Americans, Hispanics, Indus, LGBTs, women, individuals with disabilities, and cross cultural groups. Google takes good care of its workers as well, and has also been voted as one of the 100 Best Companies to Work For by Fortune magazine (???100 Best???).
With everything considered, these two organizations tie in well together. First, it is evident that both Cisco and Google care for their employees. Second, it is interesting to see how the analogous history between the companies stems from their origins at Stanford University. The relationship even extends all the way to the industry in which the organizations offer products. Lastly, the culture of Google and Cisco are strikingly comparable, with both company??™s valuing diversity and caring for its employees.

Greek General Strike

Greek General Strike: A turning point in Europe
Chris Marsden

26 February 2010

This article first appeared on the World Socialist Website

Wednesday??™s general strike in Greece, involving two million workers in the public and private sectors, marks a turning point in the political situation throughout Europe. It represents the most significant manifestation of a growing movement of resistance to the attempt by Europe??™s governments and corporations to make workers pay for the economic crisis and the multibillion-euro bailout of the banks.

At the very onset of this new movement of the working class, two fundamental characteristics have emerged: the movement assumes a cross-border and international character, and the workers immediately come up against the bankruptcy of their old trade union and political organizations??”all of which are wedded to a nationalist program.

Indeed, austerity measures are being imposed by governments of the official ???left??? no less than those of the ???centre??? and ???right.???

This week saw a succession of strikes and protests throughout Europe:

On Monday, Lufthansa??™s 4,500 pilots in Germany struck. In France, air traffic controllers struck alongside workers at six French oil refineries. British Airways cabin crew voted by over 80 percent to strike.

On Tuesday, protest rallies took place in Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia against the austerity measures of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) government of Jose Zapatero. Trade unions in the Czech Republic announced that public transport would be halted next week.

A one-day general strike of the public sector is planned for March 4 in Portugal over the extension of a wage freeze as part of measures to cut the deficit from 9.3 percent of gross domestic product to 3 percent by 2013. French pilots have also announced plans to strike later this week.

These strikes and protests are only the initial response by Europe??™s workers to the offensive being waged against them. The broadest mobilizations have been in those countries where the most savage cuts have been announced.

Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain??”the so-called ???PIGS?????”have been targeted by the banks and financial speculators and ordered by the European Union to drastically slash their budget deficits. This will set a precedent for similar cuts across Europe. But the fact that industrial unrest has spread to Germany, France and the UK indicates the potential development of a truly pan-European movement.

The same underlying tendencies that have given rise to the reemergence of the class struggle in Europe exist in North and South America, Asia and Africa.

Many of the protests and demonstrations were relatively small??”a factor utilized by the financial press to demand that the respective governments stand firm in imposing austerity measures. Nevertheless, the more perceptive commentators were clear as to the broader implications of these actions. Writing in the Independent, Sean O??™Grady stated that the strikes marked the onset of ???Europe??™s Winter of Discontent.??? They ???promise to be just the start of the greatest demonstration of public unrest seen on the continent since the revolutionary fervour of 1968,??? he continued.

Commenting on the political impact of austerity measures that will see millions thrown into unemployment and social services gutted in Greece, Portugal, Spain and Italy, he noted, ???The democratic strains in nations that had been ruled, well within living memory, by fascist leaders or the military are growing.???

The basis for a continent-wide social and political movement is rooted in the common problems faced by workers in a globalised economy dominated by huge international banks and corporations. These organizations, and the financial oligarchy they represent, are demanding unprecedented cuts in social programmes, wages and pensions in order to pay for the trillions of dollars handed over by European governments to the banks. They are speculating against any economy that is seen as debt-heavy and unwilling to carry forward the necessary attacks on the working class, thereby increasing the financial pressure on the targeted governments.

As yet, the objectively international character of the movement developing in Europe finds no political or organizational expression. On the contrary, everywhere it meets with the determined opposition of the trade unions, to the point of outright sabotage.

This week saw the betrayal of many of these initial attempts at resistance by the working class. The German pilots union, Vereinigung Cockpit, called off the strike at Lufthansa on its first day, and the General Confederation of Labour (CGT) called off the strike against the oil giant Total in France. In both cases, the unions capitulated without having won any of the workers??™ demands. For its part, the Unite union announced yesterday that its members??™ mandate for strike action against British Airways would be put ???on hold??? while further negotiations take place.

Those protests and strikes that have gone ahead are, from the standpoint of the unions, designed to let off steam rather than mobilize a political movement against the governments that are imposing austerity measures. The unions portray their respective governments as mere hostages to either the European Union or the speculators, rather than the political representatives of the capitalist class.

The most draconian cuts are being imposed by social democratic governments that came to power as a result of popular hostility to right-wing governments??”PASOK in Greece, the PSOE in Spain, and the Socialist Party in Portugal. In every instance, they were elected with the support of the trade union bureaucracies, which have remained their allies as promised reforms have given way to austerity budgets.

The aim of the unions is to regulate social tensions and ensure that they do not pose a threat to big business and the state. A spokesman for the Greek General Confederation of Greek Workers (GSEE) made this clear when he said that imposition of PASOK??™s planned austerity measures would be ???tragic because it will provoke social unrest and clashes.???

Ireland is cited by global financiers as the model to be emulated for imposing cuts in wages and services of between 10 and 15 percent. The ability of the Fianna Fail government to do so is entirely dependent on the Irish unions, which called off strikes against the budget that had involved hundreds of thousands of workers.

The Irish Congress of Trade Unions is limiting action against the government to a public sector work-to-rule. Its leader, Jack O??™Connor, declared, ???There will be those who will represent us as endeavouring to reverse the budget and undermine the democratically elected government. I want to state emphatically that agreement can be reached.???

Whatever the intentions of the trade union bureaucracy, anger over the cuts being dictated by the banks and corporations will continue to grow. Their efforts to police this opposition, to stifle and betray it, will only lead to the development of a mass movement that must, of necessity, take the form of a political rebellion against the trade unions and the governments they defend.

There is no national solution to the crisis facing workers in Greece, Spain, Portugal or anywhere else. They are being thrust into a common struggle against globally organised capital. The fundamental question facing the entire European working class is the adoption of a socialist and internationalist program as the basis for a new political leadership and new mass organizations to wage the class struggle in opposition to the nationalist and pro-capitalist organisations of the official labour movement.