Cited Page


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Tavlas, George S., ???The International Use of Currencies: The U.S. Dollar and the Euro,??? Finance & Development, June 1998, 46-49

Greek Gods

Task 1 1. How was the world created, according to Greek Mythology

???Myths of Origin??? or ???Creation Myths??? represent an attempt to render the universe comprehensible in human terms and explain the origin of the world.

2. Who were the Titans, and name at least three

The Titans were a race of powerful deities some were named Dione, Theia, and Uranus.

3. How did a war begin between the Titans and Zeus

When Zeus grew maturity, he decided to wage the war against Cronos and the Titans.

4. How was the world divided after the war

Zeus divided up the universe between his remaining family of gods at the time.
? ?·

5. Name and briefly describe (2-3 sentences) 6 major Greek Gods, describe powers, personality, allies, etc.

Six major Greek Gods are Zeus, Hera, Hestia, Hades, Poseidon, and Apollo. The Greek Gods have many powers but they have one that they are powerful in. Zeus is the god of the Kings, Hera is the goddess of marriage, Hestia is the goddess of the hearth, Hades is the god of the underworld, Poseidon is the god of the sea, and Apollo is the god of healing. Most of this gods or goddess personalities are good not great.

Task 2
1. Who is Eris and why is she important to the beginnings of the Trojan War.
Eris, the goddess of discord, furious of this slight, Eris threw a golden apple, inscribed “For the fairest”, in the midst of the guests. The wedding was marred, when three powerful goddesses wished to claim the prize as the fairest: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite.

2. Which Gods were for the Trojans, and which were for the Greeks or Hellenes
Although there were hundreds of deities in the Greek and Trojan pantheon at that time, these are the gods that are mentioned in the Iliad and whose side they were on. For the Greek, Athena? Hera? Poseidon? Hermes? Hephaestus? Thetis. For the Trojans, Aphrodite? Ares? Apollo? Artemis? Scamander, Leto.
3. How was Helen lured away to Troy
Helen was abducted by the seducer? Paris? and held in? Troy, and for her sake a large army sailed against that city in order to have her restored to her husband? Menelaus, king of? Sparta. Helen was famous in the whole world for her beauty; and beauty being a precious thing, many contended in order to possess her. Therefore, she was also hated by many others on account of the woes her beauty caused. For the? Trojan War, some believe, was caused by her, and since many died in that huge conflict, she was surnamed “Lady of Sorrows”.
4.?  What role did Ulysses have in the Trojan War
Ulysses was the Roman name for Greek Odysseus, was the king of Ithaca, a Greek island.

5. Research what roles Ajax and Achilles had in the war and explain in a brief paragraph for each.
Achilles plays a great role in the Trojan War. When Agamemnon steals the beautiful captive Briseis away from Achilles, Achilles refuses to take part in the war, where after the Greeks suffer one loss after another .But when his best friend Patroclus is killed by Trojan Hector, Achilles emerges vengeful. Thetis has an armor forged for Achilles by the great god Hephaestus. Achilles kills Hector and a great number of other Trojans. Ajax led the troops of Salamis against Troy and was one of the foremost Greek warriors, fighting both Hector and Odysseus to draws. He and Odysseus rescued the corpse of Achilles from the Trojans, but when the armor of Achilles was awarded to Odysseus, the disappointment of Ajax was so great that he went mad and committed suicide.…/1100/twar1.htm

Task 3
1.?  Name and explain at least 4 characteristics of a Greek Hero. : Odysseus is a second example of a hero who fits into the category of the Greek hero who has very different experiences that define him as a hero than Hercules does. For one, Odysseus went on a great quest after he and his people had won the war over the Trojans. Odysseus was also favored by the gods which is one sign of a true hero. Athena helped him many times throughout the story. One of which was when she saved him from drowning; Athena also helped him succeed in killing all of the suitors. However without the help of Athena Odysseus could not have been as successful as he was. Odysseus was also born into royalty which is a clear sign of a hero and eventually became king of Ithaca.? 

2 – 4.?  Name three Greek Heroes and give 1/2 page biography of each.
Zeus was the god of the sky and ruler of the Greek Gods.? Zeus overthrew his Father? Cronus.? He then drew lots with his brothers? Poseidon? and? Hades. Zeus won the draw and became the supreme ruler of the gods. He is lord of the sky, the rain god. His weapon is a thunderbolt which he hurls at those who displease him. He is married to? Hera? but, is famous for his many? affairs. He is also known to punish those that lie or break oaths. He is represented as the god of justice and mercy, the protector of the weak, and the punisher of the wicked.
Poseidon is the God of the sea, protector of all waters.? Poseidon is the brother of? Zeus.? After the overthrow of their Father? Cronus? he drew lots with? Zeus? and? Hades, which is his another brother, for shares of the world. His prize was to become lord of the sea. He was widely worshiped by seamen. He married? Amphitrite, a granddaughter of the Titan Oceanus. Poseidon created the first horse. In some accounts his first attempts were unsuccessful and created a Varity of other animals in his quest. By the time the horse was created his passion for Demeter had cooled. His weapon is a trident, which can shake the earth, and shatter any object. He is second only to Zeus in power amongst the gods. He has a difficult quarrel some personality. He was greedy. He had a series of disputes with other gods when he tried to take over their cities.
Apollo, Greek god of the Sun, was the original overachiever. Apollo was the fathers favorite. At the tender age of 4 days, showing an incredible talent for archery, Apollo killed the gigantic serpent named Python (in some myths she was a dragon) who had been harassing his mother .The Greek god Apollo and his twin sister Artemis were born to Leto (a Titan goddess who was impregnated by Zeus during one of his numerous affairs. The birth of the twins was not an easy one, for their poor mother Leto had been pursued throughout her pregnancy by a gigantic serpent named Python and had never been allowed a moment??™s rest. Going into labor, she finally found a safe, secluded spot where she could deliver. But after the birth of the first twin, Artemis, was born, Leto was too exhausted to continue. Artemis, born just minutes earlier, had to take control of the situation and become Leto??™s midwife.

5. Which of these 3 heroes are the most heroic?  Explain your response in no more than one page.? 

I think Apollo the God of Sun is the most heroic because he was

the Person that overachieved his standards. At the age of four days old he was

showing incredible talent for archery he killed the gigantic serpent named

Python who has been harassing his mother. The other reason I think why

Apollo is heroic is because out of the three gods I listed Apollo was the most heroic.

When? Diomedes? injured? Aeneas, Apollo rescued him.

First,? Aphrodite? tried to rescue Aeneas but Diomedes injured her as well.

Aeneas was then enveloped in a cloud by Apollo, who took him to

Pergamos, a sacred spot in? Troy. When Zeus struck down Apollos son

Asclepius with a lightning bolt for resurrecting? Hippolytus? from the dead,

Apollo in revenge killed the? Cyclops, who had fashioned the bolt

For Zeus. Hera then sent the giant? Tityos? to kill Leto. This time Apollo was

aided by his sister Artemis in protecting their mother. He immediately

went in pursuit of the serpent that Hera sent to torment his mother,

Leto. The serpent,? Python, fought refuge at Delphi. But Apollo followed it

into the shine of the Oracle of Mother Earth and killed him. Since Apollo

being the god of religious healing would give those guilty of murder and other

immoral deeds a ritual purification.

Task 4

1.?  What is Odysseuss parentage – find his family tree and draw at least two generations of it.
2.?  Why is Poseidon so biased against Ulysses
Odysseus and his crew are on their way home, but Poseidon is still angry for what they did to his son. So Poseidon sent his evil sea serpent to do his dirty work. It is over 50 feet long. It has 20 eyes, and if its head is cut off it will simply grow back. First he decides to torture Odysseus by ripping all of his limbs off. Then he starts to eat Odysseus and his crew one by one. Then Poseidon makes sure Odysseuss family suffers. He then starts to lead the ship with no crew home.…/ApollodorusBook.html
3.?  Why is Athena loyal to Ulysses
Because he was smart and cunning and she was the goddess of knowledge. ?

4.?  Describe the abilities / powers of Circe and Calypso.?  No more than a paragraph for each.
She is a Goddess with several functions, a complex character, and as an individual she represents the dual nature of the feminine as both light and dark in a subtle, integrated/harmonious/in accordance way. When coupled with Circe, Calypso primarily represents (what has been constructed as) primarily the light aspects of the Great Goddess.

5.?  What heroic qualities does Ulysses hold
Some of Ulysses heroic qualities are Persistence and determination.

Citizen Kane vs Casablanca

The history of film is a relatively new subject area, not yet two centuries old. So trying to determine a film to take the title “greatest movie ever made” could prove to be a difficult task. After all, innovations and films are still being made today. However, we can find the greatest innovations in films early years, like in the movies Casablanca and Citizen Kane. These two films are often thought to be the best ever, and for good reasons.
I feel the first thing we should address is: what makes a film the best ever It takes more than just public opinion to answer the preceding question. First, there is innovational merit. We must identify what new techniques and technologies the movie in question introduces. Next, I think it is highly important to note the influences a movie has had on the film industry. More specifically, to acknowledge the influences made on following films created. Lastly, we should take into account public opinion, when the movie was released and in current time.
In 1941, Citizen Kane, an American made film was introduced to the public. The movie revolves around Charles Foster Kane, and the pursuit of uncovering his life story after Kane passed away. This was accomplished for the most part through the use of flashbacks from the memories of those who knew Charles Foster Kane. This film was nominated for an Academy Award in nine separate categories and yet tanked at the box office.
So how does, Citizen Kane, possible find itself in the running for greatest movie ever made When we look at the innovation in narration, music, and cinematography we are given a better idea. Director Orson Wells and Cinematographer Gregg Toland utilized the technique of deep focus. That is the use of a larger depth of field, which creates very sharp images in both the foreground and background. This technique became popular in the 1940??™s and is no longer popular today. The narrative style is prevalent throughout the film. As stated before, Citizen Kane has a story line that is conducted through narration using flashbacks. The Narrative Style is what made this movie.
This brings us to the matter of public opinion; in theaters where the film was released, Citizen Kane did very well and received positive reviews. The problem was trying to get theaters to show the film, and I believe the debate created by Orson wells over authorship of screenplay to be the cause. In today??™s film industry this movie has influenced the likes of Steven Spielberg, Ridley Scott, and the Coen Brothers. In summary this movie fulfills all the merits of the greatest film ever made, but what about Casablanca
The American romantic-drama, Casablanca, was released in 1942, and was set during World War II. This film deals with the struggle of the protagonist, Rick Blaine, who must decide whether to pursue his love of a woman, or to help her husband escape Casablanca. Casablanca won three Academy Awards and is currently ranked near the top of the list for greatest films ever made. So how does Casablanca fit in with Citizen Kane
While Citizen Kane??™s foundation was built off of innovation, Casablanca climbed the ???greatest??? charts through its popularity. The music, dialogue, and characters have become iconic, and this film is considered to be greatly loved, even more so than Citizen Kane. Of course there are other aspects to this film but its innovations and technologies do not compare to those of Citizen Kane. The influences made on the film industry are not as notable either.
In conclusion, both movies exhibit great strengths in one or more of the areas previously discussed as to what makes a movie the greatest ever. While one relies on its innovative advancements and great story line the other uses its great plot and the beloved public opinion. So it is in my opinion that Citizen Kane is the greatest movie ever made. It met all three areas of criteria I mentioned and this is why I have dubbed it so.

Greek Life

Greek Life
Every day life in Ancient Greece differed depending on ones social status. Xenophon was a student of Socrates and he wrote a dialogue between Socrates and a man by the name of Ischomaches. The dialogue is about how Ischomaches spends his morning, and it explains how most aristocrats occupied themselves during the 4th century B.C. in Greece.
According to Ischomaches, the average aristocrat leads a very busy life. The typical morning would start out by waking up and going into town if there was anything that needed to be done. If there was no need to go into town, then he would go to his farm to make sure all of his servants are doing the job they are supposed to do. Ischomaches talks about how if anything was going wrong, he would offer his feedback on the situation.
After checking on his men at the farm, Ischomaches would go out on his horse for a while, he didn??™t care where he is going, he would just ride. When he was finished with that, he would jog back to his house. While he headed home, his serving boy would take the horse and go into town to get anything that was needed. Ischomaches would go to his house, take a bath, and eat breakfast. He was then ready for the day to begin.
After reading this dialogue, it is easier for me to picture the way that some people lived in ancient Greece. This makes it very clear that a lot had to be done before the day even began. It??™s hard to imagine what life would be like as a lower classman during this time, if an aristocrat had so much to do.

Citizen Kane

Citizen Kane

Citizen Kane, Orson Welles first feature film, is considered one of the most important and influential films ever made. It was a film way ahead of its time in all senses. It used a non linear approach to the story telling, employed a vast array of visual and audio techniques that were not necessarily new, but had never before been used together to such startling effect.
The story examines the life and legacy of Charles Foster Kane, a character that starts out with an idealistic social service, but gradually evolves into a ruthless pursuit of power. Told primarily in flashbacks, the film begins with Kane??™s death. With his last breath, Kane says, ???Rosebud.??? Immediately a newsreel begins, reviewing the highlights of Kane??™s career as the camera had recorded them over the years. Unsatisfied, a group of journalists decide to probe deeper in an attempt to discover the truth about Kane, and to discover the significance of ???Rosebud.??? The journalists set up a series of interviews with key people in Kane??™s life, each of whom relates the man??™s story as he or she knew it.
One of the story-telling techniques used in Citizen Kane was the use of montage to collapse time and space. Using the same set and having the characters change costume between cuts so that the scene following each cut would look as if it took place in the same location, but at a time long after the previous cut. This is seen in the breakfast montage where Welles shows the breakdown of Kane??™s first marriage.
Welles pioneered several visual effects in order to cheaply shoot things like crowded scenes and large interior spaces. Many of the shots at Xanadu were done by effectively using miniatures to make the film look much more expensive than it truly was. Make up during the film was also effectively used to portray the effects of aging, especially to depict old Kane.
Citizen Kane was one of the first movies that expertly used light and shadow to emphasize the importance of certain objects and characters throughout the movie. A prime example of this occurs when the reporter enters the study of Mr. Thatcher to observe what occurred in the early years of Kane. As he enters the enormous study, there is a light directed at an angle in the room. If you look closely the light is directed at a book in the room that contains Kane??™s childhood. When the reporter opens the book, the contrast between the dark and light is extreme enough that the book looks as if it??™s glowing. This was perhaps to show the importance of the book, which contained memories from Kane??™s childhood.
Welles expertly used sound to give Citizen Kane a more realistic feel. The audio in the film is very strong and makes you feel as if you are sitting next to the characters. The dialogue also overlaps which gives a more realistic feel of a group of people, some of whom are talking at the same time.
I believe that Citizen Kane was a great film that opened doors for future filmmakers. It is a great film to watch, especially for those who don??™t really appreciate classical film. Compared to today??™s films, Citizen Kane uses old and archaic effects, but it makes up for it by creating characters and situations that the audience can relate to and feel for. As mentioned before, many of the techniques used in Citizen Kane were not new, but the combination and the effects the techniques had on the film are what make the movie a classical masterpiece.

Greek Medicine Was Fundamentally Changed by Its Encounter with Islamic Culture.??™ Is This Statement Accurate

???Greek medicine was fundamentally changed by its encounter with Islamic culture.??™ Is this statement accurate

The expansion of empires or cultures across new lands will always impact on the daily lives of a conquered population. Religious, social, political and economic differences may change the fundamental elements of society. Arguably, one the most important of these is medical practice. With the expansion of the Islamic world across the ancient Hellenistic empire in 750 CE the adoption of the Greek, Hippocratic humoural medical system was one that changed the Islamic approach to medicine fundamentally. This essay will discuss whether the cultural encounter fundamentally changed existing Greek medical theory. To understand this properly we will discuss and define the Greek medical fundamentals, examine whether the translation process had a large enough impact to change fundamentals and whether the Islamic culture itself was unable to adopt all the Greek ideas, in their original form, based on the strict Muslim cultural code.

Although there have been many significant Greek practitioners including Galen of Pergamum and others, ???the most influential theory was devised by Hippocrates??? (Brunton p. 151). It was his humoural medical theory that will define ???Greek medicine??™ for this essay. ???Hippocratic medicine was based on four humours: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm… the humours exhibited four fundamental qualities ??“ they are hot, cold, wet or dry… a healthy body was one in which the different humours were in balance… summed up in one of the Hippocratic texts:
Health is when these constituents [the humours] are in due proportion to one another… Pain is experienced whenever one of these is deficient or in excess or isolated in the body and is not blended with all the others.??™ (Quoted in Nutton, 2004, p. 82), (Brunton p.152-153).
Disease ???was treated with drugs, diet and changes in lifestyle??™ to reflect the balance in humour. From the devising of the system to the medicines prescribed to treat ailments, ???the key characteristics of Greek medicine are that it is systematic (humours explain both health and disease, which are determined by following a logical set of rules) and rational (most disease has natural, not supernatural causes). (Brunton p. 157).

The extent of the Hellenistic empire meant that humoural medicine was practiced from ancient Greece, through the middle east and north east Africa. ???From the seventh century CE, humoural medicine spread even further with its adoption in the Islamic world.??™ expanding the exposure from the boarders of India to Spain. The expansion of the Islamic world coincided with an economic growth with large Muslim cities, such as Baghdad, becoming ???a cultural melting pot, attracting traders and scholars from across the Islamic world??™. The expansion brought Islamic scholars in contact with the Greek language and Greek ideas. Huge numbers of medical manuscripts were translated, especially those of Hippocrates and Galen (Brunton p. 157-158). Translation will always incur inaccuracies and interpretation. The cost of translation was high and often only parts of transcripts where copied, pages may go missing or be destroyed. Muslim scholars did their best to avoid miss translation even when faced with Greek words that had no Arabic translation, by creating new Arabic words by transliterating Greek words. As time went on, accuracy in translation increased, however few examples of translations of the same Greek text by more than one Islamic scholar have survived, suggesting the early translations may be less accurate. Although some minor mistakes may have been made during translation, it is unlikely that miss pronunciation or confusion of words would affect any fundamental Greek medical ideas or theories.
More likely to affect the core ideas and fundamentals of Greek medicine was the intentional modification of texts to make them fit Islamic culture. ???references to Greek Gods were routinely deleted from texts and replaced by Allah… remedies using alcohol, or materials taken from pigs… were dropped from Islamic pharmacy??™. So Islamic writers did change Greek manuscript.

Along side the rise of Greek medicine in the Islamic world was previous medical practice. This was mainly trial and error medicines although also incorporated Magic, believing that supernatural sources caused illness. These where treated with amulets and charms. This was referred to as ???folk medicine??™ and had no theoretical framework. With the rise of Islam, a religious medicine developed, modelled on the acts and sayings of the prophet Muhammed. This sometimes absorbed elements of Greek practice (Brunton p. 160).

Not all Greek texts where translated, thus subtly reshaping the body of Greek medical knowledge. (Brunton p. 160). However, scholars who had their entire works translated, such as Galan, based much of their work on Hippocrates and the humoural system. Also they adopted the Greek Systematic and Rational research approach, therefore the fundamentals of Greek medicine where still passed on.

The motivation of the translator was vital in the accuracy of the transcript. In order for a scholar to be wealthy enough to afford document to be translated, it is likely that he was involved in upper echelons of the Islamic society, were social, political and economic factors of the greater populous will be crucial in influencing there scholarly motives. At an early stage of an empire, built on Islamic principals, religion is a powerful motivator. Therefore, the more politically encouraged the sponsor of the translation, the more scope there may have been for Islamic re-interpretation.

But did these changes and emissions change the fundamentals of Greek medicine Islamic writers did change manuscripts to suit the culture, however, some more fundamental than others. For example, the input of Allah in place of the names of Greek Gods is unlikely to have changed fundamental principals, as supernatural influences had no impact on the theoretical framework of Greek medicine. However, in the same vein, the introduction (through previous Islamic habits) of religious medicine does challenge fundamental, Systematic and Rational approach taken by the Greeks.

In summary, the encounter of Islam with Greek medicine exposed the Hippocratic humoural system to a great number of people. This exposure required translations and teaching through many different languages and to cultures of existing medical procedures. The changes that naturally occurred through mistranslation and misinterpretation may have affected simple daily treatment or minor administration of medicine, but the fundamental application remained. As translations became more accurate this factor became less problematic. A major impact and change on the Greek medical system, was the intentional adaptation of Greek manuscript, during translation, to fit the strict Islamic culture. However, although these meant physical differences in the manuscripts and the omission of certain medicines, the fundamentals principals remained intact. The only fundamental challenge to Greek medicine was that of Religious and Magical medical practice. The use of supernatural causes of illness and disease treated with folk medicine goes against the Systematic and Rational principals that define Greek medicine. Since this practice worked along side Greek medicine and not incorporated into it, I conclude that the encounter of Islam did not fundamentally change Greek medicine.


The Open University (2008), Deborah Brunton, From Greece to the Middle east to Europe: The Transmition of medical KnowledgeI, AA100 The Arts Past and Present, Cultural Encounters.

Nutton, V. (2004) Ancient Medicine, London, Routledge.

Citizen Participation

The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government: Designing and Implementing Effective Board Training Programs for Municipalities and Counties
Paul R. Lachapelle Montana State University Elizabeth A. Shanahan Montana State University

Abstract Although there are some general resources for citizens who are appointed or elected to local government boards, there is a clear need to develop comprehensive and context-specific training material to better prepare citizens for public service and board governance. This study details the development, delivery, and impact of a structured curriculum developed by the authors and used for citizen board training in Montana. The curriculum covers four key areas: (1) Foundations of governance (such as relevant statutes, including state constitutional provisions on the right to participate and right to know, and good governance principles); (2) effective meeting techniques, with a focus on procedural methods such as Robert??™s Rules of Order; (3) conflict management; and (4) leadership and team-building skills. Curricular materials include a detailed handbook, case study exercises, relevant handouts and worksheets, and Web-based resources such as podcasts. At the end of the training, we asked participants to self-evaluate their level of change in terms of knowledge and behavior, using both print and online surveys with Likert-scale items and open-ended questions. We used the responses to measure the impact of the educational program; analysis showed a positive change in participants??™ knowledge and behavior as a result of the training. Strengths, challenges, and implications of the current training curriculum, as well as further program refinement and its delivery in various contexts, are presented and discussed.

JPAE 16(3): 401??“419

Journal of Public Affairs Education


The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government Introduction When students of public administration first learn about the New Public Service (NPS) perspective, which states that government should run like a democracy and not like a business (Denhardt & Denhardt, 2007), they typically are simultaneously energized and puzzled. Their excitement centers on linking the work of public service with normative democratic values; their bewilderment surrounds the age-old question of how to actualize democracy. Practicing democracy does not begin and end simply with the delivery of public services, but rather it involves the essential process of citizen engagement and participation as a critical means to an end. It is in this framework that we turn to training citizen boards as an example of practicing democracy and deepening such engagements through training. Citizen Boards as an Integral Component of Local Government As asserted in NPS, democratic forms of government necessitate the active involvement of citizens. However, key challenges in achieving functional democracy include effectively inculcating citizens and encouraging public participation in all forms of government deliberations and activities. One avenue for such public engagement involves appointed or elected positions for citizens on local government boards. Citizen boards are those subunits of government authorized by law to perform a single function or a limited number of functions. For example, citizens participating in planning boards, conservation districts, or housing authorities (herein boards) are responsible for limited but important functions and decisions. Perhaps more significantly, serving on boards provides various ancillary benefits. While citizen boards serve a fiduciary role by advising on policy decisions??”through direct administrative rule-making, or as quasijudicial authorities??”such boards can also provide a form of direct democracy by allowing intimate citizen-government interaction and increasing the approachability and responsiveness of various government personnel. Citizens on local government boards begin to fulfill what Berger and Neuhaus (1977) refer to as a neo-Tocquevillian vision, where citizens serve as intermediaries between the populace and government. As such, local governments have higher levels of legitimacy as the public becomes more integrated in policy discussions and decisions. In addition, citizen board participation can provide deeper levels of practiced democracy, by affording opportunities to co-learn how to build relationships, enhance trust, foster community responsiveness and resiliency, and promote greater transparency and equity. Citizens engaged on boards may also better understand and thus support government policies and activities because of their board duties. Perhaps most importantly, board participation allows citizens to directly interact with each other in a formal setting of government rule-making, an increasingly critical function in contemporary democracies.


Journal of Public Affairs Education

The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government Serving on or interacting with the boards, districts, commissions, and committees in local government offers opportunities to practice and nurture many democratic ideals. According to Ostrom (1997), citizen interactions are ???fundamental conditions for establishing and maintaining the viability of democratic societies ??¦ person-to-person, citizen-to-citizen relationships are what life in democratic societies is all about??? (p. 3). Such participation has the potential to challenge and change the traditional roles of citizen as outsider, public administrator as expert, and legislator as representative of elite interests (Box, 1998). Boards offer a dynamic avenue for citizens to become part of the community governance. However, as Carver (2006) explains, board failures are a result not of people but of our approach to governance. Providing training programs for citizen boards is therefore critical to maintaining and promoting effective public participation in local governance. Effective training programs can ensure that boards will function properly, members will be well informed, the public will be better able to interact and engage with peers, and quality public participation will increase both through more efficient meetings and more citizen recruitment for vacant board positions. Misunderstandings or a lack of knowledge regarding the authority, responsibility, and jurisdiction of boards can lead to conflict, bad press, potential for litigation, and ultimately can decrease overall government function and legitimacy. The purpose of this study is to detail the development, delivery, and impact of the citizen board curriculum in Montana, to present various pedagogical strengths and challenges, and to outline future program refinement. We begin by describing the current situation for local governments across the state, assessing needs within this context. Next, we describe in detail our four-part curriculum and provide examples of program implementation. Then we describe our methods and results in order to analyze the relative effectiveness of different teaching methods and materials. Last, we suggest curriculum refinements and discuss the implications of a similar program implemented both within the United States and internationally. Effective Citizen Board Training as a Public Affairs Issue There is growing evidence that citizens are increasingly apathetic toward and disengaged from the day-to-day business of governance, as well as civic and social activities, particularly in the last half century (e.g., King & Stivers, 1998; Putman, 2000; Skocpol, 2003). Although there are competing perspectives to explain such a decline, there is general agreement that citizen participation in governance and public affairs is important to democracy and the situation is growing more critical. In tandem with lower levels of engagement, there has been a steady decline in citizens??™ trust that the federal government will ???do what is right most of the time,??? from 75% in the mid-1960s to just over 25% in the 1990s (Putnam, 2000, p. 47). The attacks on September 11, 2001 prompted a

Journal of Public Affairs Education


The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government slight upsurge in citizens??™ political consciousness, trust in government and the police, and interest in politics. However, the civic behaviors of citizens are little changed (Putnam 2002 and 2005a).1 We are, according to Putnam (2005b), ???less trusting, less civic-minded, and less participatory in the affairs of public life??? (p. 7). Unquestionably, civic engagement in the United States??”including active involvement in local governance??”continues to lack both in terms of quality and quantity. As Kemmis (2001) observes in the context of the United States, ???our way of being public is a deepening failure??? (p. 56). Concerns about public apathy toward civic responsibility are not new and were forewarned by French historian Alexis de Tocqueville, who predicted that modernity would result in the atomization of the citizenry and eventually lead to apathy and oppression.2 Deficiencies in the quantity or quality of citizen participation can in part be due to a lack of educational opportunities regarding the roles and responsibilities provided to citizens by local government and educational institutions. Yet citizen demand for educational opportunities, although not well understood, appears to exist. According to Putnam (2000), the appeal for opportunities to interact publicly is real: We tell pollsters that we wish we were living in a more civil, more trustworthy, more collectively caring community. The evidence for our inquiry shows that this longing is not simply nostalgia or ???false consciousness.??? Americans are right that the bonds of our communities have withered, and we are right to fear that this transformation has very real costs (p. 402). Poorly run public boards increase apathy toward and mistrust in government, thereby decreasing effective public participation. Effective citizen boards offer an opportunity to increase public participation, dissuade apathy, enhance trust, and create more robust and well-functioning democracies. Generally, there is a paucity of training materials available to citizens who may want to engage with and serve on local government boards. Although there has been considerable scholarship on the pedagogy of citizen leadership (Jacobson & Warner, 2008), and service learning opportunities with local governments through formal institutions (e.g., Reinke, 2003; Koliba, 2004; Imperial, Perry, & Katula, 2007), there is a dearth of research on the perceived and real needs of local governments for effective citizen board training programs, and few studies have assessed the outcomes of various pedagogical approaches to citizen board members. Although there are some general resources for local government training (e.g., Torp 1994; Bianchi, 1997; Kirlin 2003; Hurd, 2004; Fisher 2007), there is a clear need to develop comprehensive and context-specific training material to better prepare citizens and public officials for public service and board governance (Rebori, 2007). Some scholars (Cook, 1996; Denhardt &


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The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government Denhardt, 2007) assert that to effectively merge public service and democratic values, the role of the public administrator must be one of a facilitator and public educator. It is in this context that we developed the citizen board curriculum presented here. Citizen Board Curriculum In Montana, there are 1,127 distinct local governments.3 These entities include municipalities, counties, school districts, and special districts; each contains multiple boards with potentially thousands of citizen participants. Citizens are either elected to local government boards or appointed by the local governing authority. There is a largely unmet need to provide materials and training to citizens, elected officials, and public employees on the authority, responsibility and jurisdiction of the thousands of boards and their members meeting in countless public forums in the state. We created the citizen board curriculum to address numerous requests to the Montana State University (MSU) Local Government Center (LGC) to provide a means of citizen board education.4 Requests to train the numerous boards that exist across the state began in early 2004 in the form of emails, phone calls, and direct appeals from elected municipal and county officials present at various LGC trainings. These officials noted that local government legal counsel and the governing authority itself were either too busy or not adequately prepared to deliver necessary training on both the legal requirements and practical realities of serving on boards. In late 2006, we met with staff at the LGC and select public officials to begin planning the board curriculum. The curriculum evolved and now consists of four distinct pedagogical areas: (1) Foundations of governance, (2) effective meeting techniques, (3) conflict management, and (4) leadership and team-building skills. These four areas were identified as a result of a comprehensive Web-based inventory of public board resources across the United States. We use a variety of techniques and materials to deliver the training curriculum. In most cases, the program is delivered in person by MSU faculty and LGC staff to citizen boards across the state. The material is delivered on a first-come, first-served basis, and distribution depends on the availability of teaching faculty or staff. Great demand from boards and the geographic reality of delivering the program in Montana, the country??™s fourth-largest state, make it difficult to meet every request. However, to date, approximately 2,200 citizens have undergone the training. The content is based on the participation of specific board members, and generally the trainings take place as all-day sessions or two consecutive half-days. The materials include a 45-page handbook with summary information on the curriculum, presentation handouts, copies of statutes, and case study exercises that contain detailed scenarios tailored to the boards that are present. The case study exercises are meant to be participatory and deliberative, allowing users

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The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government the opportunity to break into small groups and discuss in detail how they would address a particular situation, such as a potential open meetings violation, code of ethics indiscretion, conflict with the public, or poor board leadership. The groups then report back to the entire class and further discuss and debate the scenarios. Board information in the handbook specifically references the Montana Code Annotated (MCA) and relevant information about case law and attorney general opinions. An electronic version of the handbook contains Web links to the online MCA, with updates to the handbook after each legislative session. The curriculum is also offered as an online Web conference, which generally produces positive results. However, in such presentations the group exercise is not used because of the difficulty of group interactions on a Web conference. The Web conferences have been archived and are available as podcasts for public viewing. We developed, implemented, and evaluated the curriculum between November 2007 and May 2009, specifically for county- and municipal-level public boards. However, the classes have also been open to those who serve on state and private boards. Trainings are also open to the general public, for those who may be interested to serve on a board or learn more about board governance. Each educational subset of the curriculum is presented and discussed below. Foundations of Governance The foundations of board governance are understood as twofold: (1) Statutory information and (2) principles of good governance (e.g., matters of participation, responsiveness, transparency, and equity). The first area focuses on relevant state statutes, including explanations of Montana??™s constitutional provisions that detail the public??™s right to know and right to participate.5 Course content includes relevant excerpts from the MCA such as the Open Meetings Law, Code of Ethics, and board liability.6 An introduction of good governance principles follows material on state statutory provisions. As former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan remarked in the context of global economic prosperity, (as cited in Birner, 2007), ???Good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development??? (p. 1.) There are varying models of good governance (e.g., Box, 1998; Carver, 2006). This particular curriculum is based on initiatives developed through the United Nations Development Programme and expanded on by Graham, Amos, and Plumptre (2003). We chose this model for its strategic convergence of both structural and procedural aspects of functioning boards. Table 1 is a course handout that details the principles of good governance based on Graham, Amos, and Plumptre (2003). This material is presented and compared with applicable MCA and Constitutional provisions to allow board members to reflect on foundational elements of democratic government as described in statutes. A central tenet of this course content is understanding the need for transparency and providing


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The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government Table 1. Board Curriculum Handout on Good Governance Principles Good Governance Principle Legitimacy and Voice

Application and Description Participation??”Individuals should have a voice in decision making, either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their intention. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively. Consensus Orientation??”Good governance mediates differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interest of the group and, where possible, on policies and procedures. Strategic Vision??”Leaders and the public have a broad and long-term perspective on good governance and human development, along with a sense of what is needed for such development. There is also an understanding of the historical, cultural, and social complexities in which that perspective is grounded. Responsiveness??”Institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders. Effectiveness and Efficiency??”Processes and institutions produce results that meet needs while making the best use of resources. Accountability??”Decision makers in government, the private sector, and civil society organizations are answerable and responsible to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders. Accountability differs depending on the organizations and whether the decision is internal or external. Transparency??”The free flow of information, with processes, institutions, and data is directly accessible, sufficient, and applicable.




Equity??”All have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being. Rule of Law??”Legal frameworks are fair and enforced impartially. Note. Adapted from Graham, Amos, and Plumptre (2003)


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The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government information to the public who participate in board discussions and decisions. Constitutional language is presented in tandem with the right to know provisions in the MCA with the understanding that ???information is the currency of democracy.???7 Interpreted broadly, good governance principles presented at the board trainings provide participants with discussion points for case study exercises and the rest of training. Effective Meeting Techniques The second educational area involves techniques and resources that board members can use to create more efficient and productive meetings. These approaches include material on the creation and use of bylaws, role-playing exercises applying Robert??™s Rules of Order, and various methods to effectively engage the public during public meetings. There are several key questions presented to board members on the topic of the creation and use of bylaws, including the following: Does your board have formal bylaws Do you have a copy of/have you read your board??™s bylaws Do your bylaws describe a formal orientation for new members Do your bylaws address what to do in case of attendance problems Do you have rules about taking minutes in executive session and who controls the agenda ??? Do your bylaws address procedures for providing public records and posting your meeting notices ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? These questions and others motivate class participants to ask about, discuss, and apply knowledge toward procedural issues that may make meetings more efficient and accessible to the public. A related component of this area of the curriculum focuses on how effective communication can enhance meetings, whether spoken (i.e., allowing for and encouraging public comment and deliberations), written (i.e., taking effective meeting minutes), or through body language (i.e., gestures, mannerisms, and other forms of visual communication). Role-playing exercises are used to illustrate the importance of different forms of communication in various scenarios. Conflict Management The topic of conflict management is the third area of the curriculum. Although there is a rich literature base to draw from, the existence of materials specifically for board members and the situation they may encounter is limited. Discussion in the trainings begins with definitions of conflict based on Kelsey and Plumb (2004) and how conflict can be manifested within boards or the public. Sources of conflict are explored based on four key areas presented in Table 2.


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The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government Table 2. Board Curriculum Handout on Conflict Management

Source of Conflict Miscommunication/ Misinformation

Manifestation of Conflict Through lack of information, inaccurate, or assumed information, misunderstood information, inaccurate encoding or decoding of communication, and differing analyses of information Expressed often by competing demands for fiscal, material, or time resources; different priorities and methods for accomplishing tasks; or psychological needs (such as security, competence, social acceptance, or creativity) Includes the totality of culture, personality, social norms, values, and belief systems that form the lens through which we perceive and make meaning of the world Physical, organizational, or legal situations; lack of clear task definition; unclear or missing descriptions of the role of board members; physical distance between parts of an organization Equity??”All have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being Rule of Law??”Legal frameworks are fair and enforced impartially

Real or perceived differences in needs and priorities

Real or perceived differences in values, perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and culture Structural conditions


Note. Adapted from Kelsey and Plumb (2004).

Board members explore methods of negotiating conflict, including viewing conflict as a positive outcome of process. In this more positive light, discussion focuses on how conflict can help to define issues, introduce new perspectives, make boards consider a wide range of options, energize creative thinking, and

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The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government keep boards alert to the interests of members and the public. A set of statements based on Fisher and Ury (1981) is introduced to help board members negotiate conflict: ??? Separate the people from the problem: Encourage careful listening, and don??™t allow personal attacks. ??? Focus on interests, not positions: When someone states a position, ask ???Why??? to learn about their underlying interests. ??? Invent options for mutual gain: Use brainstorming to generate multiple options that meet everyone??™s interests. ??? Insist on objective criteria: From the outset, establish criteria that will be mutually acceptable. Small group activities help facilitate this program area. Participants are asked to describe in detail common sources of conflict that arise during board meetings (personality traits, limited resources, etc.) and pose the questions, ???What have you done to address the conflict, and what was the result??? as well as, ???In hindsight, what could you have done differently that would have resulted in a different outcome??? Participants are encouraged to share experiences with the group, and discussions are centered on resolving and learning from conflict in a public setting. Leadership and Team-Building Skills The fourth educational program area involves exploring and evaluating the leadership potential within the board and understanding team-building skills. Although there is a growing literature base on the need for and application of leadership and team-building skills in local government settings (e.g., Gabris, Grenell, Ihrke, & Kaatz, 2000; Fisher 2007; Svara, 2008), we chose to apply the Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, and Results (SOAR) method for this area of the program. SOAR is used as a heuristic to understand the potential for board action related to meeting process and outcome. The method has been applied in many settings and diverse disciplinary areas, from community planning to nursing practice and patient care (Stravos, Cooperrider, & Kelly, 2003; Havens, Wood, & Leeman, 2006). The SOAR analysis is based on a process called Appreciative Inquiry, which provokes reflection and action focused on the positive attributes of a process and outcome, instead of the problems. For example, rather than posing questions such as the following??”???What??™s wrong with the people on this board???; ???Why isn??™t this board doing better???; and ???What??™s causing this conflict, and who is responsible?????”inquiries are phrased using the following questions. ???Think of a time for this board when performance was high??”what were you and the others doing???; ???What external factors supported these moments???; and ???How might this board function if we could expand the conditions that led to past successes???


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The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government The former set of questions assigns blame and encourages the demonization of government, as well as the disengagement of citizens; the latter set of questions embraces citizen obligation and responsibility to be a part of the process and solution. The SOAR method allows board members to focus on the positive attributes of the process and outcome, to assess how the board functions as a cohesive team, encourages introspection on effective communication and execution, and ultimately develops leadership skills within the board. Measuring Training Program Outcomes There were two methods used to evaluate and measure impact of the training materials and educational program. Program delivery took place between November 2007 and January 2009. Evaluations took place on two separate occasions. First, an evaluative survey with eleven 5-point Likert-scale items and two open-ended questions was provided on-site to program participants (N=601) at the completion of each training. Second, several months after the trainings, program organizers (including county commissioners and municipal clerks) were asked to choose participants representing new and long-term members, and those with varied kinds of experience serving on the board. The respondents are not a random sample, but they do represent the varied longevity and experience of board members. These program participants (n=34) were asked to self-evaluate the training??™s level of impact using an online survey with 11 Likert-scale items and two open-ended questions. Data analysis for both surveys involved statistical analyses to generate the frequency, mean, and standard deviation for responses to the numerical survey items and content analysis of the responses to the open-ended questions. The sample responding to both surveys included a broad representation of boards (i.e., Fair Board, County Solid Waste Board, County Health Board), councils (i.e., Human Resource Council, County Council on Aging), districts (i.e., County Soil Conservation District), and committees (i.e., Local Emergency Planning Committee, Growth Policy Committee) across the state. We distributed the on-site survey at the completion of the trainings, and respondents gave a consistently positive overall program evaluation, with scores averaging 4.73 on a 5-point scale. For the online survey, over half the respondents (51.4%) had 10 years or more of board experience, indicating the great need for delivering the material. The Likert scale is a 5-point measurement where 5=Strongly Agree and 1=Strongly Disagree. Responses from the online survey report an increase in knowledge of applicable statutes and positive changes in behavior as a result of the educational programs (see Table 3). The measurement questions focused on knowledge and behavior of citizens serving on their boards. The premise of the evaluation is to gauge changes in knowledge and their connection to changes in behavior. The results illustrate the self-reported changes after the training in both knowledge and behavior (see Table 3).

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The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government Table 3. Likert-Scale Scores Measuring Impacts of Board Trainings Strongly Agree or Agree (%) 94.3 88.6 85.7 80.0

Changes in Knowledge of Statutes I have a better understanding now of the Open Meetings Law. I have a better understanding now of the Code of Ethics. I have a better understanding now of liability issues for board members. I have a better understanding now of what constitutes nepotism. Changes in Procedures I have a better understanding now on how to use motions in a meeting. Our board is implementing or following adopted policies or rules of procedure (such as bylaws). We are now using a form of parliamentary procedure, such as Robert??™s Rules of Order. Changes in Behavior I am more likely to follow the requirements prescribed in the Open Meetings Law. I think about how to address conflict at board meetings more constructively. I feel more comfortable participating in my board meetings. Our board minutes are taken more effectively.

Mean Score 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.2

Standard Deviation 0.61 0.68 0.63 0.72




55.9 45.7

3.6 3.6

0.74 0.66

80.0 74.3 71.4 51.4

4.3 4.0 3.9 3.6

0.76 0.76 0.75 0.78 0.70

Our board meetings are more efficient. 48.6 3.6 Note. Judgments were made on a 5-point scale (5=Strongly Agree, 1=Strongly Disagree).


Journal of Public Affairs Education

The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government In the open-ended section of the survey, respondents were able to comment on the specific changes that took place as a result of the board training. The vast majority of these responses (84%) were positive and reflected specific changes in knowledge and behavior. Examples of the responses are provided in Table 4. Responses to both the Likert-scale items and open-ended questions show a positive change in both knowledge and behavior after trainings. The change in knowledge is primarily reflected in improved understanding of statutes and procedures associated with ethics, open meetings violations, and issues of board liability. Changes in behavior are reflected in methods of addressing conflict at board meetings, the application of various statutes such as noticing meetings agendas, and the application of procedural adjustments to make board meetings more efficient. Table 4. Responses to Open-Ended Survey Items on Changes in Knowledge and Behavior

Changes in Knowledge ???The training raised my awareness regarding ethics.??? ???I have a better idea of what should be included in our board minutes.??? ???I??™m now less concerned with personal liability, knowing my board is bonded.??? Changes in Behavior ???I??™m inspired to serve; more confidence in my ability.??? ???I??™ll take my board duties much more seriously.??? ???I will be more careful about handling problems with the board members.??? ???I have been examining the MCA more often (online).??? ???More diligent about posting meeting notices.??? ???More careful about discussion with multiple board members outside of official meetings.??? ???Minutes are taken more accurately.???

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The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government Implications for the Board Curriculum Although the responses to the board trainings have been positive, alterations to the curriculum are now in progress. For example, because participants reported the usefulness of the case study exercises, future curriculum will increase and improve the use of such studies, with more specific and relevant scenarios for each board training. A request for more detail has led to the development of additional materials that include legal briefing handouts describing recent relevant case law and attorney general opinions. Due to requests that come to the LGC for these trainings, an expanded Web-based curriculum is also being developed to reach a wider audience across the state. Future research will test whether there is a difference between learning on-site and learning from Webbased training efforts. In addition to archived recordings (podcasts) of previous Web conferences, a series of case scenarios is being developed in which online training participants will be able to watch an array of situations at a board meeting and choose appropriate responses to questions about the situations. A formal certification program is also being discussed with representatives of municipal and county associations. The certification program would not guarantee an increase in board effectiveness, but it would serve as a formal acknowledgement of training that can be put on a citizen??™s resume for future participatory opportunities. There is great potential for application of this board curriculum both in Montana and beyond. Although the specific statutes related to Montana municipal, county, and state jurisdictions may not be directly applicable in other states or countries, the general principles are transferable and can be applied in other states and countries that utilize citizen boards. In particular, the principles of good governance, effective meeting strategies, conflict management techniques, and leadership skills are all directly applicable in other contexts and regions. The strength of the program is the use of case studies which may have to be altered to be directly applicable in other contexts. However, using the current curriculum as a template, significant changes would not be necessary, and application would be relatively simple. There is currently an effort underway to communicate with outreach centers in all of the land-grant universities in the United States to network and share information on this and related local government programs. Working with colleagues from six other states, the strategy is to expand this current program and create a national board curriculum that will be more useful in a variety of local government contexts. Conclusions The development and implementation of the citizen board curriculum and training program has led to a better understanding of the challenges faced by local governments in effectively practicing democracy. Specifically, the evaluation of this program has led to five key findings. First, there is a


Journal of Public Affairs Education

The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government great unmet need in Montana to provide a coordinated training program to educate citizens on their roles, responsibilities, and best practices related to local government boards. Second, there is currently a lack of training material, not only in Montana but also more generally across the United States, specific to citizen board governance. Third, the implementation of a coordinated training program can have measurable and considerable positive impacts, particularly when the training process is deliberative and participatory and uses case study exercises. Fourth, there is a need to expand this current curriculum and develop more comprehensive materials for specific boards and other contexts, not only in other parts of the United States, but also internationally. Last, there is a great need to create mechanisms for educators to network with other educators and share similar training materials. This will lead to the development and implementation of a national citizen board curriculum that is based on general principles related to local governance and specific context-relevant case studies. In summary, our evaluation shows that the board training curriculum benefits participants in a variety of areas, in particular with regard to an increase in knowledge of statutes and to changes in behavior concerning board procedures and methods of addressing conflict. In this sense, we feel that the curriculum has tremendous potential not only in the present context but also in more widely applicable situations, including other states, private boards, and international settings. Public administration theorists advocate that public servants include citizens at the center of strategic planning and decision making, but achieving effective and active participation is often a challenge. As such, this board training program is an excellent opportunity for MPA students to understand and experience the nexus of democratic theory and praxis. By arming citizens with knowledge of effective and efficient governance, as well as behavioral techniques and ethics to guide processes, participation is thus based on democratic principles of equity, transparency, and inclusiveness. These efforts are an example for Public Administration students of the ongoing process and work involved in actualizing the democratic principles of fostering and building citizen engagement. Students in MPA programs or related fields need examples such as this one to be better informed on the various practices of democracy. Naturally, there are challenges in designing and implementing board training programs. For example, providing the material in a comprehensive fashion is time-consuming, particularly considering the diverse needs of boards and the legalistic overtones that tend to consume many citizen boards. However, the strengths of the program include a curriculum that covers a wide variety of governance principles that are broadly applicable. Further study on the impact of the educational program, as well as exploration of additional resources to include and modify, should serve to strengthen the current curriculum and lead to better board governance and improved citizen-government relations.

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The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government References
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Journal of Public Affairs Education


The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government Footnotes

For more evidence, see Kirlin & Kirlin (2002). Read (2003) wrote the following: Tocqueville equates public participation with liberty; he argues that strong communities foster civic mindedness, while atomization of the population causes apathy and facilitates oppression. The public disinterest in politics which, on his view, grows in parallel with the developing sophistication and specialisation of the state, caused him to experience a specific type of unease; this was confirmed when he noted that the process of popular depoliticisation, begun by Louis XVI, actually accelerated under the rule of the revolutionaries. Hence, he saw the roots of his own present predicament in the course of the historical pre-Revolutionary regime, and observed that both administrations had discouraged ground level self government. This, Tocqueville observes, is a characteristic of modernity (p. 51). U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. Government Organization Publication GC02(1)-1. Washington, DC. Available at The mission of the Montana Local Government Center, as set forth in Montana state law, is to ???strengthen the capacities of Montana??™s local governmental units to deliver essential services efficiently and to provide training, technical assistance, and research to local officials??? (?§20-25-237, MCA). Montana Constitution, Article II, Section 8. Right of participation. The public has the right to expect governmental agencies to afford such reasonable opportunity for citizen participation in the operation of the agencies prior to the final decision as may be provided by law. Available at http:// Section 9. Right to know. No person shall be deprived of the right to examine documents or to observe the deliberations of all public bodies or agencies of state government and its subdivisions, except in cases in which the demand of individual privacy clearly exceeds the merits of public disclosure.






The entire text of the Montana Code Annotated is available in a searchable format at http://data. While many believe this phrase is attributed to Thomas Jefferson, there is no evidence to confirm he ever said or wrote the phrase. For more information, see Carnaby & Rao (2003).



Journal of Public Affairs Education

The Pedagogy of Citizen Participation in Local Government Author??™s Note The authors appreciate the efforts of the course participants who have been involved in the board training program and agreed to assist with the evaluation. We would also like to thank several individuals who assisted with the collection and review of the curriculum materials, including Jane Jelinski, Mary Anne Anderson, Dan Clark, and Molly Anderson. Please direct correspondence to Paul R. Lachapelle, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Political Science Montana State University, Bozeman 406-994-3620 pa[email protected] Paul R. Lachapelle is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science, Montana State University. His current research interests include community development, local governance, public participation, and deliberative democracy. Specifically, he provides educational programs through the Extension Service on many topics, including community strategic visioning, governance, leadership development, and planning facilitation. Elizabeth A. Shanahan is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science, Montana State University. Her research interests center on policy conflict and the role that public officials, media, interest groups, and citizens have in developing political narratives to influence policy change or status quo. She teaches courses in public administration and policy.

Journal of Public Affairs Education


Greek vs. Roman Life

Greek vs. Roman Life
American Intercontinental University Online

This paper compares and contrasts Greek and Roman cultures, government, art, architecture, economy and social structure. It will show you how the Greeks and Romans were a like and different. You will learn how they lived, what they believed in and how they built their lives.

Greek vs. Roman Life
The Greeks and Romans were a like in many ways. The Romans inherited many of their ways of life from the Greeks. They also believed in things that were not so much alike. The following table will show you the differences and similarities between the Greeks and Romans.
| Greek | Roman |
Terrain | Poleis ( city-states)Separated Mountainous | InlandLow areas swampyHigh areas unable to buildTiber & Arno River |
Culture | Polytheistic Believed in many Gods For every area of life | Adapted from Ancient Greek, Believed in GodsHousehold religion and state religion |
Social Structure | Women were not citizensMen in charge of family And householdWomen had children and managed house and slavesWomen were not allowed To vote | Men masters of their homesWomen respected for hygiene, Women took care of household and childrenWomen were citizens and allowed to vote |
Government | Kings rulesThen Representative Democracy | Kings ruled then because a republic. Emperors were then established. Split government into three branches Executive, Legislative, and Judical |
Economy | Based on AgricultureSelf SufficientDid not depend on slaves | Based on AgricultureImported WheatAnnexed provincesTradedDependent on slave labor |
Art & Architecture | Ideal artistic formFocused on perfectionLiked to used marbleDoric, Ionic, and Corinthian Architecture Built Temples to please the Gods | Realistic art formFocused on history and real peopleLiked to use cement and concrete Corinthian ArchitectureBuilt buildings for Entertainment |
GREEK AND ROMAN ART. (n.d). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from History World:
(n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from Ancient Greece:
Agriculture of Ancient Greece. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2012, from
Ancient Greek Government. (n.d.). Retrieved July 21, 2012, from History for Kids:
Sayre, H. M. (2010). Discovering The Humanities. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, United States: Pearson Education Inc. Retrieved July 16, 2012

Citizenship and Rainbows End

Does citizenship alone make a group of people really belong to a country or society What needs to happen to achieve a true sense of belonging Write your response to these questions, with reference to the play “Rainbow??™s End” and what you know of the 1967 Referendum
The definition of citizenship is the state of being an inhabitant of a particular social, political, national, or human resource community. Although citizenship defines what country you legally belong too it doesn??™t necessarily mean that you belong to that country. There are two types of citizenship; ???right of blood??™ and ???right of soil??™. ???Right of blood??™ means that policy grants citizenship based on ancestry or ethnicity. ???Right of soil??™ means that policy grants citizenship to anyone born on the territory of the state. A person??™s ancestry may be from India but they may have been born in Australia. This person may feel torn between which country they feel like they ???belong??™ too as they were born in Australia and by birthright and where they live, are characterized as an Australian citizenship but are also characterized by their skin and ethnicity as Indian. The 1967 referendum allowed Aboriginal people to be included in the national census, which meant they would have the same citizen rights as other Australians. Even though all the non-indigenous/??™white??™ people that lived in Australia were from other countries they were still classified as Australian citizens while the Aborigines who were the ???true Australians??™ were not. Up until 1967 the Aboriginals were classified under the Flora and Fauna act which meant that they were not classified as people or citizens of Australia. In rainbows end Gladys complains that ??? We??™re second class citizens in our own country. No not even citizens???. The Aboriginals were not classified as citizens, yet they still belonged to Australia. A citizenship means that a person legally belongs to a country but does not necessarily mean that a person ???truly??™ feels like they belong to that country.

A true sense of belonging is determined by the environment in which a person lives; it can emerge from the connections made with people, places, groups, communities and the larger world. A person needs to feel at ease with all of the things in their environment in order to feel a true sense of belonging. In Rainbow??™s end Errol is asking Dolly to come with him to Sydney. He is listing all the reasons why it would be beneficial for her and asks ???Are you saying you??™d rather live in a humpy by the river When I??™m promising you the world??? Dolly responds by saying ???you??™re assuming that your world is better??™. Dolly is angry that Errol is belittling the home that Dolly lives in saying that his is much better. Dolly doesn??™t want to leave her home because although Errol??™s may be more stable, Dolly??™s home is ???a real home where there are people looking out for each other??™. ???Our life isn??™t perfect, but like Nan says, it??™s ours???. Dolly feels a true sense of belonging to her home.

Greek vs Rome

GreeDifference between Greek & Roman civilizations
Think of two great powers. Both of which at their peaks could rival almost any other power. It would be hard to see a difference between both of these civilizations at first glance. They both did arise in similar positions but all things eventually change. Nothing stays the same especially in the case of these two glorious city state civilizations
Let??™s start off with the difference in the expressive form of each civilization. The art of each of these civilizations could be compared with each other. The art form used by each civilization. This would deal with how the art was interpreted. Greek culture dealt with producing an ideal artist form. This would be something akin to an image that is so perfect it couldn??™t be real. The Roman??™s form of art was to make anything as realistic as possible and to use the art for decoration and personal use.
In sense and style of economy. The Greek culture was behind the Roman counterpart. This came from poor practicing with tending to their agriculture practice. They switched to what the Romans were good at. The both had slaves to do labor but Rome was more dependent on their slaves as the backbone of their economy.
There social classes also have differences. This like many other aspects of the cultures may not be noticeable at first glance. This happens to be different since in Rome woman where treated with more respect and treated and as actual citizens of their respective states. This is far from what is usually occurring between the two. In Greece the women could own property but can??™t sell it, and her father was able to take her back even after marriage. She was basically like a slave. The Roman woman got to own and sell property was even viewed with high regard in the society.
The level of authority within a household was also different. In Roman family the father had say in whatever his children did. He could even decide to get rid of a newborn child. What the father would say would go. In Greek culture. There wasn??™t as much restraint when it came to this. They could legally challenge their fathers if they felt they weren??™t doing the right thing.
Each civilization had its government run by kings. This would change for Greece and democracies would form giving people a chance to have a say in government of course except for people who weren??™t considered actual citizens lower class, women, slaves, poor. This would change for Rome. As Rome changed to democracy it would eventually switch back to

The way each was set up also differed. Greece was comprised of multiple city states who would offer help to each other to fight off a common enemy. Rome had began as a city state but decided to take over its neighbors around mainland Italy .
Another difference in these civilizations is in the architecture of each region. The architecture of the Romans was also more advanced than that of the Greeks; they used concrete and placed emphasis on arches, vaulted ceilings, and domes while Greece emphasized balance and symmetry. Greek temples aimed at impressing by designing intricate, aesthetically pleasing outer views, while Roman architectures goal was to impress by enclose a vast amount of space.
The Romans were also far more advanced than Greece in terms of engineering progress. In both the areas of civil and hydraulic engineering, Rome towered above Greece. They constructed a network of durable, paved highways and city streets; in fact, most everything had concrete walls and pavement. They developed a water supply and storage system as well as a waste disposal scheme, using aqueducts when local water supplies ran low. Furthermore, they implemented food preparation, storage, and distribution centers in addition to their dependable water supply system.
Rome was an empire of violence and conquest, while Greece was more diverse and democratic, more artistic and much older. I think Greece is? far more interesting. The differences between the two is just enough to show that although at first glance alike. They end up differing greatly from each other.